1. Behaviorists
    John Watson, Ivan Pavlov, Joseph Wolpe, and B.F. Skinner.
  2. Behaviorism
    The mind is a blank slate and behavior is learned.
  3. Erikson's psychosocial stages
    • Trust v. mistrust (birth - 1 years)
    • Autonomy v. shame & doubt (1 - 3)
    • Initiative v. guilt (3 - 6)
    • Industry v. inferiority 6 - 11)
    • Identity v. role confusion (12-18)
    • Intimacy v. Isolation (18-35)
    • Generativity v. Stagnation (35-60)
    • Integrity v. despair (65 +)
  4. Piaget's stages of cognitive development
    • Sensorimotor (birth-2) = Object permanance
    • Preoperational (2-7) = Centration
    • Concrete operational (7-12) = Conservation
    • Formal operational (11-16) = Abstract thinking
  5. Kohlberg's levels of moral development
    • Preconventional - Behavior governed by consequences
    • Conventional - Desire to conform to socially acceptable rules
    • Postconventional - Self accepted moral principles
  6. Zone of Proximal development
    Lev Vygotsky - Cognitive development is created by activities. The zone is a child's ability to solve problems on his own.
  7. Freud's Psychosexual stages
    Oral (birth-1), anal (1-3), phallic: oedipal & electra complex (3-7), latency (5-12), genital (adolescence & adulthood)
  8. William Perry's theory of intellectual development
    • Dualism - students view as either right or wrong
    • Relativism - the perfect answer may not exist; desire to know other opinions
    • Commitment to relativism - Willing to change opinion based on new facts
  9. Define culture
    Habits, customs, art, religion, science, and political behavior of a given group.
  10. Acculturation
    Learning the behaviors and expextations of a culture.
  11. Racism
    When a race views itself as superior to others
  12. Ethnocentrism
    A group sees itself as the standard by which other enthnic groups are measured
  13. Emic v Etic
    • Emic is the view of helping client understand his/her culture.
    • Etic focuses on equality
  14. Autoplastic v Alloplastic
    • Autoplastic helps client change to cope w/ environment.
    • Alloplastic helps client change the environment.
  15. Racial/Cultural Identity Development (R/CID)
    • Conformity - lean toward dominant culture
    • Dissonance - question and confusion about identity
    • Resistance and immersion - reject dominant culture and accepting own culture
    • Introspection - mixed feelings related to resisitance/immersion
    • Synergetic articulation & awareness - against racial and cultural oppression
  16. Native American clients
    • Keep suffering private
    • Speak w/ few words
    • Do not engage in eye contact
    • Emphasize spirituality
  17. African American clients
    • Like to be taught concrete skills
    • Short tem counseling is effective
  18. Asian American clients
    • Patriarchal
    • Value academic/professional success
    • Need assertiveness
  19. Hispanic American clients
  20. Psychoanalysis
    • Freud:
    • Focuses on the past and unconscious
    • Repression, displacement: taking anger out on a safe target, projection: pointing something out in someone else, reaction formation: acting in opposite manner, Sublimation: express unacceptable impulse in acceptable manner, Rationalization: overrate/underrate, Suppression/denial: consciously not think about something, and Transference
  21. Freud's theory of personality
    • Superego - Moral mind
    • Ego - Reality mind that balances id and superego
    • Id - Desires/impulses/pleasure
  22. Creator of Analytic Psychology
    Carl Jung
  23. Analytic Psychology (Carl Jung)
    • Psychodynamic:
    • -Personal unconscious
    • -Collective unconscious

    • Archetypes:
    • Animus - masculine side of females
    • Anima - femine side of males

    Extroversion and introversion
  24. Author of Individual Psychology
    Alfred Adler
  25. Adler's Individual Psychology
    Behavior is one's unconscious attempt to compensate for feelings of inferiority.

    Focus on Birth order
  26. Who is the father of Behaviorism
    John B. Watson
  27. Who created Behavioral Therapy?
    Arnold Lazarus
  28. Radical Behaviorism
    Developed by B.F. Skinner

    Behavior is molded solely by its consequences.

    Operant conditioning
  29. Positive reinforcer
    A added stimulus that increases a behavior.
  30. Negative reinforcer
    A stimulus that is removed to increase a behavior.

    ex: Eliminating a loud noise while studying
  31. Social Learning Theory
    Albert Bandura

    Behavior increase due to seeing someone else getting reinforced. Also called modeling or vicarious learning.
  32. Systematic Desensitization and relaxation
    Joseph Wolpe
  33. Person-Centered Humanistic Therapy
    Carl R. Rogers

    Empathy, Genuineness, and unconditional positive regard.

    No belief in unconscious as humans can control their own behavior.
  34. REBT
    Albert Ellis

    Form of CBT

    Replacing irrational beliefs with rational beliefs.

    ABC model - Activating event, Beliefs system, emotional Consequences.
  35. Aaron T. Beck's cognitive therapy
    Similar to REBT

    Emphasizes that automatic thoughts are distortions of reality.
  36. Transactional Analysis
    Eric Berne

    Builds off of Freud's theory. Ego states similar to Superego, Ego, and Id; Parent, Adult, and Child.

    Often combined with Gestalt therapy
  37. Reality Therapy
    William Glasser

    Focus on present behavior. Reality can be created with behaviors that are chosen.
  38. Narrative Therapy
    Michael White and David Epston

    Client's lives are constructed by stories. Stories are rewritten.

    Problems are externalized
  39. SFBT
    Steve DeShazer and Insoo Kim Berg
  40. First and second order change
    Tied to family therapy. First order change is when a client makes a change that does not alter the structure of the family. Second order change alters the structure of the family.
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NCE Questions