John Watson, Ivan Pavlov, Joseph Wolpe, and B.F. Skinner.
The mind is a blank slate and behavior is learned.
Erikson's psychosocial stages
- Trust v. mistrust (birth - 1 years)
- Autonomy v. shame & doubt (1 - 3)
- Initiative v. guilt (3 - 6)
- Industry v. inferiority 6 - 11)
- Identity v. role confusion (12-18)
- Intimacy v. Isolation (18-35)
- Generativity v. Stagnation (35-60)
- Integrity v. despair (65 +)
Piaget's stages of cognitive development
- Sensorimotor (birth-2) = Object permanance
- Preoperational (2-7) = Centration
- Concrete operational (7-12) = Conservation
- Formal operational (11-16) = Abstract thinking
Kohlberg's levels of moral development
- Preconventional - Behavior governed by consequences
- Conventional - Desire to conform to socially acceptable rules
- Postconventional - Self accepted moral principles
Zone of Proximal development
Lev Vygotsky - Cognitive development is created by activities. The zone is a child's ability to solve problems on his own.
Freud's Psychosexual stages
Oral (birth-1), anal (1-3), phallic: oedipal & electra complex (3-7), latency (5-12), genital (adolescence & adulthood)
William Perry's theory of intellectual development
- Dualism - students view as either right or wrong
- Relativism - the perfect answer may not exist; desire to know other opinions
- Commitment to relativism - Willing to change opinion based on new facts
Habits, customs, art, religion, science, and political behavior of a given group.
Learning the behaviors and expextations of a culture.
When a race views itself as superior to others
A group sees itself as the standard by which other enthnic groups are measured
Emic v Etic
- Emic is the view of helping client understand his/her culture.
- Etic focuses on equality
Autoplastic v Alloplastic
- Autoplastic helps client change to cope w/ environment.
- Alloplastic helps client change the environment.
Racial/Cultural Identity Development (R/CID)
- Conformity - lean toward dominant culture
- Dissonance - question and confusion about identity
- Resistance and immersion - reject dominant culture and accepting own culture
- Introspection - mixed feelings related to resisitance/immersion
- Synergetic articulation & awareness - against racial and cultural oppression
Native American clients
- Keep suffering private
- Speak w/ few words
- Do not engage in eye contact
- Emphasize spirituality
African American clients
- Like to be taught concrete skills
- Short tem counseling is effective
Asian American clients
- Value academic/professional success
- Need assertiveness
Hispanic American clients
- Focuses on the past and unconscious
- Repression, displacement: taking anger out on a safe target, projection: pointing something out in someone else, reaction formation: acting in opposite manner, Sublimation: express unacceptable impulse in acceptable manner, Rationalization: overrate/underrate, Suppression/denial: consciously not think about something, and Transference
Freud's theory of personality
- Superego - Moral mind
- Ego - Reality mind that balances id and superego
- Id - Desires/impulses/pleasure
Creator of Analytic Psychology
Analytic Psychology (Carl Jung)
- -Personal unconscious
- -Collective unconscious
- Animus - masculine side of females
- Anima - femine side of males
Extroversion and introversion
Author of Individual Psychology
Adler's Individual Psychology
Behavior is one's unconscious attempt to compensate for feelings of inferiority.
Focus on Birth order
Who is the father of Behaviorism
John B. Watson
Who created Behavioral Therapy?
Developed by B.F. Skinner
Behavior is molded solely by its consequences.
A added stimulus that increases a behavior.
A stimulus that is removed to increase a behavior.
ex: Eliminating a loud noise while studying
Social Learning Theory
Behavior increase due to seeing someone else getting reinforced. Also called modeling or vicarious learning.
Systematic Desensitization and relaxation
Person-Centered Humanistic Therapy
Carl R. Rogers
Empathy, Genuineness, and unconditional positive regard.
No belief in unconscious as humans can control their own behavior.
Form of CBT
Replacing irrational beliefs with rational beliefs.
ABC model - Activating event, Beliefs system, emotional Consequences.
Aaron T. Beck's cognitive therapy
Similar to REBT
Emphasizes that automatic thoughts are distortions of reality.
Builds off of Freud's theory. Ego states similar to Superego, Ego, and Id; Parent, Adult, and Child.
Often combined with Gestalt therapy
Focus on present behavior. Reality can be created with behaviors that are chosen.
Michael White and David Epston
Client's lives are constructed by stories. Stories are rewritten.
Problems are externalized
Steve DeShazer and Insoo Kim Berg
First and second order change
Tied to family therapy. First order change is when a client makes a change that does not alter the structure of the family. Second order change alters the structure of the family.