ch 9 joints.txt

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  1. STRUCTURAL classification of joints
    • fibrous joint: bones held together by dense collagen fibers
    • cartilaginous joints: bones held together by cartilage
    • synovial joints: bones held together by ligaments
  2. FUNCTIONAL classification of joints
    • synarthrosis: immovable joint
    • amphiarthrosis: slightly movable joint
    • diarthrosis: freely movable joint
  3. Fibrous & cartilaginous joints vs. synovial joints
    Fib & cart lack a synovial cavity and synovial joints have a synovial cavity
  4. 3 Types of fibrous joints
    • 1. sutures: occur b/w bones of the skull
    • 2. syndesmoses: permit slight movement, ie interosseous membrane
    • 3. gomphoses: immovable, joint in which a cone-shaped peg fits into a socket, ie articulations of teeth w/the sockets of maxillae and mandible
  5. 2 types of cartilaginous joints
    • 1. Synchondroses: connecting tissue is hyaline cartilage, ie epiphyseal (growth) plate
    • 2. Symphyses: slightly movable, ends of articulating bones are covered w/hyaline cartilage but disc of fibrocartilage connects bones
  6. Pubic Symphysis
    cartilaginous joint b/w the anterior surfaces of the hip bones (the pubic region)
  7. Synovial fluid
    • secreted by synovial membrane
    • reduces friction by:
    • lubricating joint
    • absorbing shock
    • supplying oxygen and nutrients to cartilage
    • removing carbon dioxide and metabolic waste from cartilage
  8. Type of Synovial joint
    • Bursae: a sac-like structure containing fluid similar to synovial fluid (but does not regenerate itself once lost as does synovial fluid)
    • located b/w tendons, ligaments and bones
    • Cusions the movement of these body parts
  9. Types of movement at Synovial Joints
    • 1. gliding
    • 2. angular movements
    • 3. rotation
    • 4. special movements
  10. Types of angular movements
    • 1. Flexion
    • 2. Extension
    • 3. Lateral flexion
    • 4. Hyperextension
    • 5. Abduction
    • 6. Adduction
    • 7. Circumduction
    • 8. Rotation
  11. Types of special movements
    • 1. Elevation
    • 2. Depression
    • 3. Protraction
    • 4. Retraction
    • 5. Inversion
    • 6. Eversion
    • 7. Dorsiflexion
    • 8. Plantar flexion
    • 9. Supination
    • 10. Pronation
    • 11. Opposition
  12. Synovial Joint classification based on types of movements
    • 1. Planar: permit back & forth and Side to side movements, ie intercarpal joints
    • 2. Hinge: produce an opening & closing motion (permit only flexion & extension), ie knee and elbow
    • 3. Pivot: surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone, ie joints that enable palms to turn anteriorly and posteriorly
    • 4. Ball-and-Socket: ball-like surface of one bone fitting into a cuplike depression of another, ie shoulder and hip
  13. factors contributing to keeping articular surfaces in contact and affect range of motion
    • -structure or shape of articulating bones. this determines how closely they fit together
    • -strength and tension of joint ligaments. ligaments are tense when joint is in certain positions, restricting range of motion
  14. Hormones affecting flexibility of joints
    RELAXIN: increases flexibility of pubic symphysis and loosens ligaments between the sacrum and hip bone towards end of prenancy
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ch 9 joints.txt
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