1. Define edema
    increased fluid in tissue
  2. define anasarca
    extreme increase in fluid in tissues
  3. list 5 pathophysiologies of edema
    • 1. increased hydrostatic pressure (impaired venous return)
    • 2. reduced plasma osmotic pressure (reduced protein synthesis--cirrhosis; increased protein loss)
    • 3. lymphatic obstruction
    • 4. sodium and water retention (acute impairment of renal function)
    • 5. inflammation
  4. what are 2 complications of edema
    • 1. pulmonary edema impairs gas exchange, which can lead to acute congestive heart failure
    • 2. cerebral edema causes compression and herniation of critical areas, stasis
  5. Define effusion
    collection of fluid in body cavity or other space
  6. define hyperemia
    active vasodilation from neurogenic mechanisms or inflammation
  7. define congestion
    impaired venous return often accompanied by edema
  8. define hematoma
    blood in tissue
  9. define petechiae
    skin or mucous membrane hemorrhages, 1-2mm in size
  10. define purpura
    skin or mucous membrane hemorrhages 3-9mm
  11. define ecchymoses
    focal skin and subcutaneous hemorrhage >1cm
  12. what are 2 clinical consequences of hemorrhage
    • 1. acute hemorrhage of >20% of blood volume leads to shock
    • 2. chonic blood loss leads to iron deficiency anemia
  13. list the antithrombotic of endothelials for hemostasis
    • 1. barrier from ECM
    • 2. prostacyclin inhibits platelet adhesion
  14. list anticoagulant properties of endothelials for hemostasis
    • 1. heparin-like molecules (AT III) inactivate thrombin
    • 2. thombomodulin binds to thrombin to activate protein C
  15. list prothrombic activities of endothelials for hemostasis
    • 1. von Willebrand factor helps binding of platelets to collagen
    • 2. inhibitors of plasminogen activity
    • 3. after exposure to cytokines extrinsic clotting pathway is initiated
  16. List the 3 phases of forming a platelet plug
    • 1. adhesion: mediated by von Willebrand factor
    • 2. secretion
    • 3. aggregation: aggregation (reversible phase), platelet contraction (irreversible phase)
  17. How is the extrinsic coagulation system acivated?
  18. how is the intrinsic coagulation system activated?
    factor XII (hageman factor)
  19. what are the final products of the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation cascades?
    thrombin and fibrin
Card Set
overview of edema/congestion/hemostasis