A large, hierarchically structured organization that preforms specific functions to implement polity
What bureaucracy does
It focuses on translating political decision into authoritative actions through predictable, rule-bases process
How and why American bureaucracy has grown over the years
- Size of gov grown, more entitlement programs (medicare and Medicaid) --Baby boomers are now at their age where they need these programs. Civil service program
- Expansion of third party (must some some sort of bureaucracy to accommodate).
- Civil war , = growth in gov
- New Deal, and WWII = expansion bureaucracy
Webers 3 types of authority
1. Traditional: Patriarchalism, monarchy
- 2. Charismatic: Religious leaders, dictators
- 3. Rational-legal: Administrative staff
- 1. making rules
- 2. putting rules in action
1. Fed. Registered Act (1935) - formal publishing
2. Administrative Procedure Act 1946 - Allows others to participate in drafting law
public participates more via internet
Enforcement functions and tools: Tools-->
contracts, info service, loans (cash for clunkers)
Ensuring public comply with policy by...
-Adjudicating specific cases
- -Enforcing laws
- -Running programs
Ways that organizational structure can influence bureaucratic behavior:
- Asks questions like...
- -whos going to do what?
- -who makes decisions, who has authority?
- -How the groups relate to each other?-- sharing resources, info flow
Types of Organization
Focus on type of work/skill; vertical
Focus on product/customer; fairly decentralized (but often vertical within divison)
Mixture of functional, divisional; joint control
Focus on processes; highly decentralized
Focus on outsourcing; highly decentralized
Goal vs Task
- Goal: future end-state being sought
- Task: specific action taken in pursuit of the goal
Gov. goals often too vague to define tasks bc-->
real-life trail and error help shape instead
An ‘overriding concern’ with which an operator has to cope in doing tasks
Types of Beliefs
- Professional norms
- Political ideology
An agency whose actions are substantially influenced by outside interest groups
Most vulnerable to capture when.
agencies with strong interest group backing (client agencies)
describe the psychology, attitudes, experiences and beliefs and values (personal and cultural) of the organization-- what shall we do? what shall we be?
Sense of Mission
- when employees, managers (really), support a particular culture
- -Managers often try to create a sense of mission but if they don't, employees control