PSY 302

  1. Development is..
    changes throughout life from conception to death
  2. What does development involve?
    growth, maintenance, regulation, and decline
  3. What are the types of development?
    phsyical, psychological, spiritual, social, cultural
  4. How is development contextual? What is it influenced by?
    all development occurs within a setting, which is influenced by historial, economic, social, and cultural factors
  5. Contexts exert three types of influences.. that can have a biological or enviornment impact on development:
    • 1) normative age graded influences
    • 2) normative high graded influences
    • 3) nonnormative or highly individualized life events
  6. Normative age-graaded influences

    A) are similar for individuals in a particular age group
  7. Normative history graded influences...

    B) are similar for individuals in a particular age group
  8. nonnormative life events:

    A) unusual occurences with major impact on individual's life
  9. what is the life span perspective?
    views development as lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidiscipinary, and contextual, and as a process that involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss
  10. What are three process in development?
    • a) biological
    • b) cognitive
    • c) socioemotional
  11. how is biolgoical a process in development?
    changes in physical nature
  12. how is cognitive process in development?
    changes in thought, intelligence, language
  13. how is socioemotional process in development?
    changes in relationships, emotions, personality
  14. Is there an interaction of biological, cognitive, socioemotional processes throughout lifespan? yes or no?
  15. A developmental period refers...
    to a time frame in a person's life that is characterized by certain features
  16. what are the periods of development?
    prenatal, infancy, early childhood, middle & late childhood, adolesence, early childhood, middle adulthood, late adulthod.
  17. prenatal period..
    is the time from coception to birth
  18. infancy is...
    the developmental period from birth to 18 or 24 months (to 2 yrs)
  19. What happens during prenatal period?
    It involves tremendous growth-from a single cell to an organism complete with brain and behavioral capabilities-and takes place in approx. a nine month period
  20. What happens during infancy?
    Infancy is a time of extreme dependence upon adults. During this period, many psycholoigcal activites-language, symbolic thought, sensorimotor coordination, and social learning, for example- are just beginning
  21. early childhood is..
    the developmental period, known as the "preschool years" from the end of infancy to age 5 or 6.
  22. what happens during early childhood?
    young children learn to become more self-sufficient and to care for themselves, deevlop school readiness skills (following instructions, identifying letters), and spend many hours in play with peers.
  23. what grade level typically marks the end of early childhood?

    B) first grade
  24. middle and late childhood is..
    the developmental period from about 6 to 11 years of age, approx. corresponding to the elementary school years
  25. what happens during the middle and late childhood?
    the fundamental skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic are mastered. The child is formally exposed to the larger world and its culture. Achievement becomes a more central theme of the child's world, and self-control increases.
  26. Adolescenece is..
    the developmental period of transition from childhood to early adulthood, entered at approx 10 to 12 years of age and ending at 18 to 21 years of age.
  27. what happens during adolscence?
    At this point in development, the pursuit of independence and an identity are prominent. Thought is more logical, abstract, and idealistic. More time is spent outside the family.
  28. How does adolescence begin?
    • Period begins with rapid phsyical changes-dramatic gains in height and
    • weight, changes in body contour, and the development of sexual
    • characterstiics such as enlargement of breasts, growth of public and
    • facial hair, and deeping of the voice.
  29. Early adulthood is..
    the developmental period that begins in the early twenties and lasts through the thirties.
  30. what happens during early adulthood?
    it is a time of establishing personal and economic independnece, career development, and, for many, selecting a mate, learning to live with someone in an intimate way, starting a family, and rearing children.
  31. middle adulthood is..
    the developmental period from approx 40 years of age to about 60.
  32. what happens during middle adulthood?
    It is a time of expanding personel and social involvement and responsibility; of assisting the next genration in becoming competent, mature individuals; and of reaching and mainting satisfaction in a career
  33. late adulthood is..
    the developmental period that begins in the sixties or seventies and lasts until death
  34. What happens during late adulthood?
    it is a time life review, retirement, and adjustment to new social roles involving decreasing strength and health.
  35. Which is the longest life span of any period of development?
    late adulthood
  36. Which period of development has been dramatically increasing in numbers of people?
    late adulthood
  37. Which age group does life span developmentalists pay more attention to dfiferences in? why?
    late adulthood because a major change takes place in older adults' lives as they become the "doldest-old" on average at about 85 years of age.
  38. What is an example of the difference in major changes in in older adults' lives?
    the "young old" (65-84) have substantial potentional for physical and cognitive fitness, retain much of their cognitive capacity, and can develop strategies to cope with the gains and losses of aging. In contrast, the oldest-old (85 and older) show considerable loss in cognitive skills, experience an icnrease in chronic stress, and are more frail
  39. What is the nature-nurture issue?
    involves the extent to which development is influences by nature and by nurture.
  40. nature refers to..
    an organism's biological inheritance
  41. nurture refers to..
    its envriornmental experiences
  42. Which is more influential? nature or nurture?
    both are essential and interact
  43. what is erikson's psychosocial theory?
    • a) motivation for development is social
    • b) development occurs over life span
    • c) at each state- "crisis" must be resolved
    • d) if crisis resolved -healthy development
  44. what are the eight stages of development in erikson's theory?
    • 1) trust versus mistrust
    • 2) autonomy versus shame
    • 3) initaitive versus guilt
    • 4) industry versus inferiority
    • 5) identity vs identiity confusion
    • 6) intimacy vs isolation
    • 7) generativity vs stagnation
    • 8) integreity vs despair
  45. what happens in trust vs. mistrust stage..
    • a) first psyhosocial stage/infancy (first year)
    • b) trust sets stage for expectation that the world is safe
  46. autonomy vs shame + doubt stage
    • infancy + toddlerhood (1-3 years)
    • independence starts
    • too restrained/punished-shame and doubt
  47. initiative vs. guilt stage
    early childhood/preschool years (3-5 years), takes initiative and responsbility, if irresponsible and anxious-guilt
  48. industry vs. inferiority
    middle/late childhood/elem school (6 years - puberty), master skills of industry, if incompetant and unproductive-feel inferior
  49. identify vs. identity confusion
    adolescence (10-20 years), new roles, vocational and romantic identities, not explore roles and future-identity confusion
  50. intimacy vs isolation
    • early adulthood (20s to 30s)
    • form intimate relationships (friend and romantic)
    • if not close to others-isolation
  51. gernerativity vs stagnation
    middle adulthood (40 & 50s), concern for helping younger generation, if not help younger ones-stagnation
  52. integrity vs despair
    late adulthood (60s-onward), reflect on past-life review, satisfied-integreity, not resolved earlier crises/stages-despair
  53. what is psychoanalytic theories?
    describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion. Behavior is mrely a surface cahracteristic, and the symbolic workings of the mind have to be analyzed to understand behavior. early experiences with parents are emphasized.
  54. piaget's cognitive developmental theory states..
    that children go through four stages of cognitive development as they activiely construct their understanding of the world.
  55. what are the stages of the piaget-cognitive development?
    • 1) sensorimotor stage
    • 2) preoperational stage
    • 3) concret operational stage
    • 4) formal operational stage
  56. sensorimotor stage
    birth to 2 years, coordinate sensory experience w/ motor activity, beginning of symbolic thought
  57. preoperational stage
    2 to 7 years, represent world with words, images, drawings, & icnreased symbolic thinking
  58. concrete operational stage
    • 7-ll years
    • perform operations-do mentally what previously did physically (ex: knowing how many toys fit in box)
    • operations and logical reasoning w/ concrete objects
    • classify objects itno different sets
  59. formal operational stage
    • 11 years though adulthood
    • reasons more abstractly, idealistically, logically
    • think about future possibilites
    • solve problems, systemicatic, hyptothesize, and testing
  60. American psyhologist, Albert Bandura, is the leading architect of..
    social cognivtive theory
  61. Social cognition theory model illustrates what?
    arrows illustratrate how relations between behavior, person/cognitive, and enviornment are reciprocal rather than one way.
  62. What does person/cognitive in bandura's social cognitive model refer to?
    cognitive processes (thinking and planning) and personal characteristics (believing that you can control your experiences)
  63. What are the methods for collecting data?
    • 1) observation
    • 2) survey and interview
    • 3) standardized test
    • 4) case study
    • 5) physiological measures
  64. In order to for observation to be effective..
    we havet o have some idea of what we are looking for: we have to know whom we are observing, when and where we will observe, how the observations will be made, and how they will be recorded
  65. observations are made in the laboratory. What does that mean? What is an example?
    a controlled setting in which many of the complex facotors of the "real word" are removed. For example, if one is to observe how children react when they see other people act agressively. if you observe children in their homes or schools, you have no control over how much the children will observe, what kind of aggression they see, which people they see acting agressively, or how other people treat the children. In contrast, if you observe the children in a lab, you can control these and other factors and therefore have more confidence about how to interpret you observations
  66. What are the drawbacks of lab research?
    • 1) it is almost impossible to research w/out the participants/ knowing they are beign studied
    • 2) the lab setting is unnatural and therefore can cause the particpants to behave unnaturally
    • 3) people wh are wiling to come to a university lab may not fairly represent groups from diverse cultural backgrounds
    • 4) people who are unfamiliar with unviersity settings, and with the idea of "helping science" may be intimidated by the lab setting
  67. what is the definition of naturalistic observation
    observing heavior in real world settings, making no effort to manipulate or control the situation.
  68. Where do life span researchers conduct naturalistic observations?
    sporting events, childcare centers, working settings, malls, and other places people live in and frequent.
  69. What is the study that naturalistic observation was used in?
    In a study that focused on conversations in a children's science museum. When visiting exhibits at the science mueum, parents were far more likely to engage boys than girls in explantory talk. This finding suggests a gender bias that encoruages boys more than girls to be interested in science
  70. what is standardized test?
    a test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring. Many standardized tests allow a person's performance to be compared with the performance of other individuals.
  71. how is standardized tests used to collect data?
    standardized tests allow a person's performance to be compared with that of other individuals; thus they provide inforamtion about individual differences among people.
  72. what is example of how standardized tests is a method for collecting data?
    the standford-binet intelligence test. Your socre on the test tells you how your performance compares with that of thousands of other people who have taken the test
  73. what is survey and interview?
    survey (a questionarire) is especially useful when information from many people is needed. In a good survey, the questions are clear and unbiased, allowing respondents to answer unambiguously. An interview is relatable, but is done directly.
  74. What is a problem with survey and interview?
    one problem with surveys and interviews is the tendency of particpants to answer questions in a way that they think is socially acceptable or desirable rather than to say waht they truly think or feel. For example, on a survey or in an interview some individuals might say that they do not take drugs even though they do.
  75. What are surveys and interviews used for? and how is it done?
    to study a wide range of topics from relgious belief to sexual habits to attitudes about gun control to beliefs about how to improve schools. Surveys and interviews may be conducted in person, over the telephone, and over the internet
  76. What is a criticism about standardized tests?
    they assume a person's behavior is consistent and stable, yet personally and intelligence- two primary targets of standardized testing-can vary with the situation. For example: a person may perform poorly on a standardized intelligence test in an office setting but score much higher at home where he or she is less anxious.
  77. what is case study?
    an in-depth look at a single individual.
  78. what do case studies involve?
    performed mainly by mental health professionals when, for either pratical or ethical reasons, the unique aspects of an individual's life cannot be duplicated and tested in other individuals. A case study provides info about one person's experiences; it may focus on nearly any aspect of the subject's life that helps the researcher understand the perosn's mind behavior or other attributes.
  79. what is psycholocial measures?
    used when studying development at different points in the life span. For example as puberty unfolds to determine the nature of these hormonal changes by analyzing blood samples, and is increasingly used for neuroimaging in which electricmagnetic waves are used to construct images of a person's brain tissue and biochemical activity.
  80. what is natural selection?
    the evolutionary process by which those individuals of a species that are best adapted are the oens that survive and reproduce.
  81. what is adaptive behavior?
    behavior that promotes an organism's survival in the natural habitat. For example: attachment between a caregiver and a baby ensures the infant's closeness to a caregiver for feeding and protection from danger, thus increasing infant's chances of survival.
  82. what is evolutionary psychology?
    emhasizes the improtance of adaption, reproduction and "survival of the fittest" in shaping behavior
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PSY 302
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