1. Acethylocholine
    enablles muscle action, learning and memory
  2. dopamine
    influences movement, learning, attention and emotion
  3. serotonin
    affects mood, hunger, sleep and arousal
  4. norepinephrine
    helps control alertness and arousal
  5. Drugs
    work by altering the activity of neurotransmitters
  6. Agonist
    mimics the action of a neurotransmitter
  7. Morphine binds to the same receptor sites as endorphins.
    Nicotine mimics acetylcholine and acts as a stimulant
  8. antagonist
    block neurotransmitters
  9. The nervous system is divided into two subdivisions.
    • Central Nervous System
    • Peripheral Nervous System
  10. Central Nervous System
    brain & spinal cord
  11. Peripheral Nervous System
    all nerves & neurons connecting CNS to the rest of the body
  12. Somatic Nervous System
    (part of PNS)
    controls the voluntary movement of muscles. It carries messages from the skin, muscles and joints to the CNS and back
  13. Autonomic Nervous System
    controls our fight or flight response
  14. Sympathetic Division
    • mobilizes our bodily resources for emergencies
    • arouses
    • fight or flight
  15. Parasympathetic Division
    • calms us down and conserves our bodily resources
    • calms
  16. Neuroplasticity
    brain’s lifelong ability to reorganize & change its structure & function throughout the life span
  17. Neurogenesis
    process by which new neurons are generated
  18. Brain Divied into 3 sections
    • 1 Hindbrain
    • 2 Midbrain
    • 3 Forebrain
  19. Hindbrain
    medulla pons cerebellum
  20. Medulla
    life survival functions
  21. Pons
    respiration, movement, waking, sleeping, & dreaming
  22. Cerebellum
    coordination of fine muscular movement, balance, & some aspects of perception & cognition
  23. Midbrain
    collection of brain structures that coordinates movement patterns, sleep, & arousal
  24. Reticular Formation
    runs through the hindbrain, midbrain, & brainstem; screens incoming information & controls arousal
  25. Forebrain
    • Limpic System
    • Thalamus
    • Hypothalamus
    • Cerebral Cortex
  26. Limbic System
    interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives, & memory
  27. Amygdala
    linked to the emotions of fear and anger
  28. Hypothalamus
    • directs several maintenance activities like eating, drinking, body temperature, and control of emotions
    • reward center
  29. Cerebral Cortex
    regulates most complex behavior, including sensations, motor control, & higher mental processes
  30. 4 Lobes
    • Occipital
    • Temporal
    • Parietal
    • Frontal
  31. Occipital
    Visual cortex
  32. Temporal
    Auditory Cortex
  33. Frontal
    • Motor Cortex - involuntary movements
    • speech production, working memory, reasoning, emotions and personality
  34. Parietal
    sensory cortex- receives informatin from skin surface and sense organs
  35. left hemisphere
    • controls right side of body
    • reading, writing, speaking, math and comprehension skills
  36. right hemisphere
    • controls left side of body
    • musical abilities, emotions and spatial abilities
  37. corpus callosum
    connects the two hemispheres together and allows for communication
  38. contralateral control
    The left side of the body is controlled by the right hemisphere and the right side of the body is controlled by the left hemisphere
  39. Endocrine System
    • the body’s “slow” chemical
    • communication system
  40. Hormones
    • chemicals synthesized by the endocrine glands that are secreted in the bloodstream
    • carry out communication
  41. Pituitary Gland
    • master gland
    • regulates other glands
  42. Neuropsychology/ Biological Psychology
    is the study of how biological processes relate to behavior and mental processes
  43. Neuron
    is a nerve cell
  44. what does a neuron do
    sends, receives and integrates information throughout the bodythe basic unit of communicationit is a tiny, information processing system with thousands of connections
  45. Glial cells
    are the "glue"; that holds neurons in place and supports them 90% of our brain cells are glial cells. They clean up and insulate neurons so we dont scramble our communications.
  46. Dendrite
    receives all incoming information from other neurons
  47. Cell Body/ Soma
    the cells life support center contains everything that keeps the cell going.
  48. axon
    • several feet long
    • carries the message
  49. myelin sheath
    a fatty tissue that helps the message travel thru more quickly
  50. terminal buttons
    they release neurotransmitters
  51. synapes
    tiny gap between each neuron
  52. how a message travels
    dendrite, cell body, axon, (sometimes myelin sheath), terminal buttons, synape, (next neuron) dendrites
  53. Resting potential
    • when neuron is at rest
    • negative charge inside the axon
  54. action potential
    • when neuron is active
    • positive charges rush in
  55. properties of action potential
    • 1 all or nothing
    • 2. all neural impulses are the same size
    • 3 self propagating
  56. presynaptic neuron
    sends the message
  57. postsynaptic neuron
    receives the message
  58. neurotransmitter
    chemical that is released from the terminal button of the presynaptic neuron and carries the message thru the synapes to the postsynaptic neuron, binds to receptor sites on the dendrite of teh postsynaptic neuron
  59. postsynaptic potential
    reaction occuring when the neurotransmitters reach the postsynaptic neuron
  60. Excitatory PSP
    positive voltage keeps message going
  61. In hibitory PSP
    negative voltage shift that stops message from continuting
  62. after the neurotransmitter causes the postsynaptic potential, it either
    • 1. drifts away and is deactivated
    • 2. it is reasorbed by the presynaptic neuron in a process called reuptake
  63. Absolute Refractory Period
    call cant be activated for 1-2 miliseconds after action potentional occured
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