1. entrance/exit of air into/out of lungs
  2. Exchange of gases between air and blood
    External Respiration
  3. Exchnage of gases between blood and tissue fluid
    Internal respiration
  4. Production of ATP in cells
    Cellular respiration
  5. 4 types of Respiration
    • 1. Breathing
    • 2. External Respiration
    • 3. Internal Respiration
    • 4. Cellular Respiration
  6. As air moves in through the airways it is _____, _______, and _______
    • 1. Cleansed
    • 2. Warmed
    • 3. Moistened
  7. In the air ways, the cilia beat upwards moving mucus, dust and occastional food bits upward to be expelled.
  8. ______ is commonly known as the throat and has 3 parts
  9. _____ is the nasal cavity opening aboe the soft palate
  10. _____ oral cavity opening
  11. ______ opens to the larynx
  12. tonsils contain _____ tht protect against inhaled foreign pathogens
  13. _____ is commonly known as the voice box
  14. loudness of the voice is due to the _______
  15. The degree to which the vocal cords vibrate
  16. ____ is commonly known as the windpipe
  17. the trachea divides into right and left _______, which lead to the lungs
    Primary Bronchi
  18. Trachea
    Primary Bronchi
    Secondary Bronchi
  19. The _____ lung has 3 lobes and the _____ lung has 2 lobes
    • Right
    • Left
  20. The ____ lung has fewer lobes to make room for the heart that lies on the _____ of the body
    • Left
    • Left
  21. O2 diffuses across the alveolar wall and enters the bloodstream, while CO2 diffuses from the blood into the aveoli
  22. Gas exchange occurs between the air in the ______ and blood in the capillaries
  23. ____ is a film of lipoprotein that lowers the surface tension and prevents them from closing
  24. ______ is the small amount of air that moves in and out with each breath when we are relaxed
    Tidal Volume
  25. ____ is the maximum volume of air that can be moved in plus moved out during a single breath
    Vital Capacity
  26. ______ is even after deep exhalation some air remains in the lungs, this air is no longer useful for gas exchange
    Residual Volume
  27. Some of the inhaled air never reaches the lungs, but instead it fills the nasal cavities, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles
  28. _____ is located in the medulla oblongata of the brain
    Respiratory center
  29. _____ is active phase of breathing
  30. diaphragm and rib muscles contract
    intrapleural pressure decreases
    lungs expand
    air comes in
    order of inspiration breathing
  31. the respiratory center stops sending neuronal signals
    diaphragm and rib cage resume normal shape and pressure
    air is forced out
  32. Gas exchange between air and blood
    External Respiration
  33. CO2 will diffuse from the blood into the alveoli of the lungs
    Talking about CO2 during external respiration
  34. O2 diffuses from the alveoli into blood
    Talking about O2 during external respiration
  35. Gas exchange between blood and tissues
    Internal Respiration
  36. O2 diffuses out of blood and into the tissues
    Talking about O2 during internal repiration
  37. CO2 diffuses from the tissues into the blood
    Talking about CO2 during internal respiration
  38. Strep throat is a bacterial infection caused by _________
    Streptococcus Pyogenes
  39. ______ is an infection of the cranial sinuses
    ______ develops when nasal congrestion blocks tiny openings leading to the sinuses
  40. _____ is a viral or bacterial infection of the lungs where the bronchi and alveoli fill with thick fluid
  41. _____ is a chronic and incurable disorder where the aveoli are distended and their walls damaged so that surface area available for gas exchange is reduced
  42. ______ is a disease of the bronchi and bronchiles that is marked by wheezing, breathlessness, cough, and expectorant
  43. 4 stages of lung cancer
    • 1. Thickening and callusing of cells lining the airways
    • 2. Cilia are then lost
    • 3. A tumor forms
    • 4. Metastasis- cells break lose and penetrate other tissues
  44. Chewed food is called _____
  45. _____ pushes food along the digestive tract
    (a rhythmic contraction)
  46. ______ begins digesting starch
    Salivary amylase
  47. Gastric juice contains the enzyme ______, as well as ______, and _____
    • Pepsin
    • HCL
    • Mucus
  48. Digestive protein is known as _____
  49. _____ causes the stomach's acidity-- important because acidity kills most bacteria found in food
  50. _____ doesn't digest food; breaks down connective tissue in meat and activates pepsin
  51. Alcohol is absorbed in the stomach, but food is NOT
  52. When the food leaves the stomach it is a thick, soupy liquid called ______
  53. _____ emulsifies fat (causes fat droplets to disperse in H2O)
  54. _____ is neutralized in the small intestine by sodium bicarbonate
  55. _____ in the small intestine complete the process of food digestion
  56. Functions of the small intestine
    • 1. emulsifes fat
    • 2. neutralizes chyme
    • 3. enzymes digest
  57. _____ greatly increase the surface area for absorption of nutrients
  58. The large intestine functions
    • absorb H2O , salts, and some vitamins
    • stores indigestible material until elimination occurs
  59. ____ are small growths arising from the colon lining
  60. _____ is caused by infection (food poisoning) and nervous stimulation
  61. ______ is when feces are dry and hard
  62. Accessory organs to the digestive system
    • Pancreas
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
  63. _____ is the largest gland in the body
  64. ____ is inflamation of the liver, occurs in many forms
  65. Hep A- sewage water
    Hep B- sexual contact
    Hep C- infected blood
    distorys liver
  66. Liver has amazing regenerative powers
  67. Pancreatic juices contain ____ and ______
    • Bicarbonate
    • Enzymes
  68. Bile is produced in the _____ and is stored in the ______
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
  69. 6 types of nutrients
    • 1. Carbohydrates
    • 2. Proteins
    • 3. Lipids
    • 4. Vitamins
    • 5. Minerals
    • 6. H2O
  70. The 4 functions of nutrients
    • 1. Growth
    • 2. Maintenance
    • 3. Repair
    • 4. Reproduction
  71. _____ carries cholesterol from the liver to the cells and is thought of as "bad"
  72. ______ carries cholesterol to the liver where it is converted into bile salts and is thought of as "good"
  73. Vitamins C, E, and A are examples of _______
  74. The functions of antioxidants
    • defend the body against free radicals
    • cellular metabolism generates unstable molecules; donates electrons to DNA
  75. Lack of vitamin D causes _____
    Rickets-bowing of legs
  76. Lack of vitamin C causes _____
    Scurvy-bleeding gums
  77. Lack of niacin causes _____
    dermatitis- dark areas on the skin
  78. _____ is binge eating then purging
    Bulimia nervosa
  79. ______ is a morbid fear of gaining weight
  80. _____ is when the body weight is 20% above normal
  81. _____ is absolutely essential to healthly life
    need at least one
  82. _____ moves urine within the ureters
  83. _____ helps regulate H2O and pH levels in the body
  84. The bladder can hold up to ____ ml of urine
  85. When the ____ are closed, urination does not take place
    2 sphincters
  86. in females the reproductive and urinary systems are not connected
  87. Females' urethra is _____ cm long
  88. Males' urethra is ____ cm long
  89. The reproduction and urinary systems are connected
  90. During the production of urine, the kindeys ____
    • 1. excrete metabolic wastes
    • 2. maintain normal H2O-salt balance of blood
    • 3. maintain pH balance of the blood
    • 4. have a hormonal function
  91. _____ is the primary nitrogenous product of metabolism
  92. Ammonia is very toxic to the cells
  93. The kidneys are involved in the regulating of blood pressure
  94. ______ produce urine
  95. Urine formation is divided into three steps
    • 1. filtration
    • 2. reabsorption
    • 3. secretion
  96. When Na+ ions are reabsorbed, Cl+ ions follow (water follow)
  97. NaCl (salt) reabsorption causes H2O to move from the nephron to the blood
  98. _____ reabsorbs H2O
  99. _____ is the increased amount of urine (more water)
    _____ is the decreased amount of urine
    • Diuresis
    • Antidiuresis
  100. If ADH is present
    more H2O reabsorbed
    decreased amount to urine
  101. Salt reabsorption increases blood pressure
  102. _____ stimulates adrenal glad to release aldosterone
  103. ______ promotes Na+ reabsorption
  104. ANH is secreted by the heart when there is increased blood volume
  105. ALcohol inhibits ADH secretionand causes diuresis
  106. Caffeine is a diuretic; it decreases reasorption of Na +
  107. Urethritis - infection of the urethra
    Cystitis - bladder infection
    Pyelonephritis - kidney infection
    Uremia - wastes accumulate in the blood
  108. _____ are chemical signals that affet the activity of other glands or tissues
  109. Know glands
    • Hypothalamus
    • Pineal gland
    • Pituitary gland
    • Thyroid gland
    • Parathyroid gland
    • Thymus gland
    • Adrenal gland
    • Pancreas
    • Ovary
    • Testis
  110. Hormones are usually controlled in 2 ways
    • 1. Negative feedback opposes their release
    • 2. Antagonistic hormones oppose each others actions
  111. _____ helps to control heartbeat, body temperature, water balance
  112. Posterior pituitary releases ADH and oxytocin, both of which are produced in the hypothalamus
  113. _____ stimulates the thyroid to produce thyroid hormones
  114. ______ stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce cortisol
  115. ______ stimulates the gonads to produce gametes and sex hormones
    Gonadotropic hormones
  116. _____ cause mammary glands to develop and produce milk
  117. _____ causes skin color changes in fish, lower levels in humans
  118. _____ promotes skeletal and muscular growth
  119. 6 hormones are produced in the pituitary gland
    • 1. TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)
    • 2. ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone)
    • 3. Gonadotropic Hormones
    • 4. PRL (Prolactin)
    • 5. MSH (Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone)
    • 6. GH (Growth Hormone)
  120. The amount of growth hormone (GH) produced during childhood affects the height of an individual
  121. Parathyroid glands
    4 glands with in the thyroid gland
  122. _____ causes the blood phosphate level to decrease and Ca levels in the blood to increase
    Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  123. The antagonistic actions of ______ and ______ maintain the blood Ca level within normal range
    • Calcitonin (thyroid gland)
    • PTH (parathyroid gland)
  124. _____ has low levels of adrenal cortex hormones
    Addison disease
  125. _____ has high levels of adrenal cortex hormones
    Cushing syndrome
  126. ____ lowers blood glucose level; promotes formation of glycogen
  127. ____ raises blood glucose level; stimulates liver to break down glycogen to glucose
  128. Insulin and glucagon maintain normal levels of blood glucose
  129. Type I diabetes
    Insulin dependent; pancreas is not prducing insulin
  130. Type II diabetes
    Noninsulin dependent; pancreas produces insulin, but liver and muscle cells do not respond in the usual manner
  131. _____ are receptors on the membrane
    Peptide hormones
  132. _____ enters the cells freely
    Act slower
    Last longer
    Steroid hormones
  133. ____ is a foreign substance that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies
  134. _____ is protein produced by the body in response to an antigen
  135. _____ is the ability to react to antigens so that the body remains free of disease
  136. _____ is a state of homeostatic imbalance
  137. There are 4 types of nonspecific defenses
    • 1. Barriers to Entry
    • 2. Inflammatory Reaction
    • 3. Natural Killer Cells
    • 4. Protective Proteins
  138. B Cells produce antibodies
    T Cells don'd produce antibodies
  139. B Cells characteristics
    • antibody-mediated immunity
    • produced and mature in red bone marrow
    • reside in spleen and lymph nodes; circulate in blood and lymph
    • directly recognize antigen
    • antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells
  140. If B cells react to "self" they will die
    If they can attack a foreign cell they leave the thymus
  141. ____ have constant regions that are set and variable regions that vary
  142. Binds pathogens, activates compliment (most common)
  143. immediate allergic response and parasitic infections
  144. T Cells characteristics
    • cell-mediated immunity against viruses and cancer cells
    • produced in bone marrow; mature in thymus
    • antigen must be presented by APC-MHC complex
    • cytotoxic T cells destroy nonself cells
    • helper T cells secrete cytokines that control immune response
  145. ____ immunity is dependent on the presence of memory cells
  146. Active Immunity (chicken pox)
    • immunization
    • vaccine
    • usually last a very long time
  147. ____ signaling molecules that regulate white blood cell formation and function
  148. 3 activites of microbes that are useful to humans
    • 1. Ecological contributions: nutrients cycling
    • 2. Economic and Aesthetic contributions
    • 3. Contributions to our health
  149. _____ digest compounds that are otherwise indigestible
    (bacteria that live in large intestine)
  150. ______ are microbes that cause disease
  151. Virulence factors allow microbes to be pathogens by conferring abililty to:
    • produce a toxin
    • adhere to surfaces
    • invade organs or cells
  152. Example of where toxins go bad:
    • E. coli-serious intestinal disease
    • Clostridium tetani-prevents relaxation of muscles, leading to suffocation
  153. Systemic diseases are more serious than local ones
  154. There are 4 modes of transmission
    • 1. Direct contact transmission
    • 2. Airbourne transimission
    • 3. Vechicle transmission
    • 4. Vector-borne transmission
  155. A disease that occurs worldwide
  156. Outside a living cell, viruses are nonliving particles
    inside a host cell, viruses replicate
  157. _____ is certain viruses can remain dormant in a cell until triggered by environmental factors
  158. 6 steps of replication
    • 1. Attachment: spikes allow virus to bind to host cells
    • 2. Penetration: viral DNA is released into the host cell
    • 3. Replication: host cells make copies of viral DNA
    • 4. Biosynthesis: viral proteins are synthesized by host cells
    • 5. Maturation: viral proteins and DNA replicate forming new viral particles
    • 6. Release: virus gets an envelope that consist of host PM components
  159. Surface of the flu contains 2 antigens on its spikes
    • 1. Neuraminidase (N antigen)
    • 2. Hemagglutinin (H antigen)
  160. Herpes Type I
    colds and fever blisters
  161. Herpes Type II
    herpes infection of the genitals
  162. Varicella-zoster Herpes
    • Causes chicken pox -then remains latent
    • Can reoccur as shingles-later in life
  163. Bacteria can be single cells or arranged in clusters or chains
  164. Most bacteria are either _____ (rods) or ______ (spheres)
    • Bacilli
    • Cocci
  165. _______ causes a greater variety of diseases than any other bacteria
  166. _____ causes food poisoning, that grows inside intestines
  167. _____ produces a toxin that is the most toxic substance on earth
  168. _____ is a yeast that causes the widest variety of fungal infections (yeast infections)
    Candida albicans
  169. _____ is most common H2O born diarrheal disease in the US; caused by Giardia
  170. The exchange between blood and tissues refers to which type of respiration?
  171. The loudness of your voice is due to the ______, the degree to which the vocal cords vibrate.
  172. The trachea divides into 2 _______ that lead to the lungs.
  173. During external respiration, CO2 diffuses from the blood into the aveoli, while O2 diffuses from the alveoli into the blood
  174. A viral or bacterial infection of the lungs where the bronchi and alveoli fill with thick fluid is called ______
  175. The microvilli of the small intestine are for ____
    absorption of nutrients
  176. Pancreatic juice contains _____
    • Enzymes
    • Bicarbonate
  177. LDL carries cholesterol from the liver to the cells and is thought of as "bad"
  178. _______ is an eating disorder in which the body weight is 20% above the normal, and contributing factors can be gentic, hormonal, metabolic, and social
  179. The bladder can normally hold up to _____ ml of urine
  180. Sphincters at the base of the bladder must be closed in order for urination not to take place.
  181. ______ is the primary nitrogenous end product of metabolism
  182. Functions of the kidneys
    • maintain H2O-salt balance
    • regulate blood pH
    • hormone secretion
  183. If antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is present there is _____ amount of urine
    a decreased
  184. T cells produce antibodies
  185. Which pathogens secretes a toxin that prevents muscle relaxation and suffocation, also known as tetanus
    Clostridium tetani
  186. Which of the following disease categories would affect the most people
    pandemic disease
  187. Which of the following causes food poisoning and grows in the intestines for several days prior to onset of symptoms
  188. The hypothalamus regulates the internal enviroment by helping to control ______
    • the hearbeat
    • body temperature
    • water balance
  189. Which of the following hormones causes the mammary gland to develop and produce milk
    prolactin hormone (PRL)
  190. ______ causes blood phosphate levels to decrease and blood Ca levels to increase and is secreted from the parathyroid glands; it works antagonistically with calcitonin to homoeostatic Ca levels
    Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  191. Low levels of adrenal hormones results in ______
    Addison diease
  192. The ______ gland produces the hormone melatonin, which is involved in the ciradian rhythms
Card Set
biology 3