1. Photoautotroph
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    organisms that make food using energy from the sun
  2. Chemoautotroph
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    • organisms that make food using chemicals (no access to sun):
    • example--organisms deep in ocean
  3. Heterotroph
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    • Organisms that eat other organisms
    • (cannot make their own food)
  4. sustainability
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    use of methods, systems and materials that won't deplete resources or harm natural cycles for the future
  5. Primary Consumer
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    (notice bug on leaf)
    consumer that feeds directly on producers
  6. Secondary consumer
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    a consumer that eats primary consumers
  7. Producer
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    organism that makes its own food (autotroph) and produces organic molecules that serve as food for other organisms in an ecosystem
  8. Primary succession
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    ^represents a volcanic eruption
    • process by which a community arises in a virtually lifeless area with no soil:
    • Example-volcanos make islands
  9. Secondary succession
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    • Change following a disturbance that damages an existing community but leaves the soil intact:
    • Example-forest growing back
  10. Biosphere
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    all the parts of the planet that are inhabited by living things; sum of all Earth's ecosystems
  11. Ecosystem
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    community of living things plus the nonliving features of the environment that support them
  12. Community
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    all the organisms living in an area (different species)
  13. Population
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    group of individuals of the same species living in a particular area at the same time
  14. Carrying capacity
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    (environment=bin, population=trash)
    number of organisms in a population that an environment can maintain:
  15. Density-dependent limiting factor
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    • factor that limits a population more as population density increases:
    • Example--disease
  16. Density-independent limiting factor
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    ^reps earthquake = natural disaster
    factor unrelated to population density that limits a population
  17. Energy and Energy flow
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    • The movement of energy through a biological food chain:
    • 10% is passed from previous trophic level
    • nearly all energy is from sun
    • all living things use energy
  18. Cycling of matter
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    • matter is recycled within and between ecosystems through biogeochemical cycles (water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle):
    • Example: photosynthesis, and fossil fuels in the Carbon cycle
  19. Photosynthesis
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    • Energy + 12 H2O + 6 CO2 --> 6 O2 + C6H12O6 + 6 H2O
    • the process in which plants use energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
  20. Respiration
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    • 6 O2 + C6H12O6 + 6 H2O --> Energy + 12 H2O + 6 CO2
    • opposite of photosynthesis
    • process by which oxygen is converted to chemical energy and carbon dioxide
  21. Life
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    the condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms, being characterized by reproduction, adaptation, evolution, DNA and/or RNA, production of waste, and use energy
  22. Prokaryotic
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    cellular organism that lacks a nucleus (does not have membranes within membrane); bacteria
  23. Eukaryotic
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    a complex cell with a nucleus surrounded by its own membrane and has other internal organelles
  24. Tragedy of the commons
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    Shared areas/ resources are ruined/depleted because people use them for their own self-interest even though it is not in anyone's long-term interest

  25. Biodiversity
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    (large) number of species in a given area
  26. Competition
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    different species need same thing --> one will succeed over the other because growth is limited by same resource
  27. Predation
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    interaction in which one organism consumes another
  28. Parasitism
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    ^crumbs = flees and ticks
    Symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed as a result
  29. Mutualism
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    Alexus helps Alex with her bad day and gets
    kindness in return
    a symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit
  30. Commensalism
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    (Alexus gets nothing in return but doesn't mind giving Alex a ride)
    A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits but the other isn't affected
  31. Niche
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    ^Mom works at home in kitchen to pay bills
    an organism's habitat (physical features of environment) and role in that environment
  32. Detritus
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    waste and remains of dead organisms :(
  33. Eutrophication
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    having water rich in nitrogen promotes growth of plans-- especially algae--which reduces oxygen and as a result kills organisms
  34. Greenhouse Effect
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    atmospheric gasses trap sun's energy that reaches earth--heats up surface; keeps stable temperature
Card Set
Pictures and vocab