Forensics Midterm

  1. forensic science
    the application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system
  2. criminalistics
    a division of forensic science the application of scientific techniques to analyzing physical evidence in criminal cases.
  3. Alphonse Bertillion
    1883 establishes anthropometry to distinguish one person from another, father of criminal identification.
  4. Hans Gross
    publishes book on criminal investigation
  5. edmond locard
    establishes first crime lab in lyon
  6. Locards exchange principle
    • when two objects come into contact with each other there is a transfer of material
    • always present but may be lost, damaged, over looked, or too small to see
    • victim may leave traces of himself at the scene, on the victim, or may take away traces
  7. Sir Alce Jefferys
    develops first DNA profile test @ University leicester
  8. Crime Labs Ohio BCI structure
    Chemistry section
    identify drugs or explosives residue
  9. Crime Labs Ohio BCI structure
    Trace Section
    Hairs and Fibers, foot wear impressions and tire impressions gun shot residue
  10. Crime Labs Ohio BCI structure
    DNA/forensics biology
    identification of stain like blood, seman, saliva, urine, feses, CODIS
  11. Crime Labs BCI structure
    firearms section
    bullets and caseings also tool marks anything fired from a gun, gun powder residue on clothing determine distance NIBIN
  12. Crime Labs BCI structure
    Latent Print section
    finger prints AFIS pills finger prints
  13. Crime Labs BCI structure
    Document Section
    altered documents, forged checks, handwriting, printer , copies, and type writers, restoration of burnt of shredded documents
  14. Crime Labs BCI structure
    Polygraph section
    blood pressure , pulse, respiration, skin conductivity, tool of interagency
  15. Burglary
    • trespassing in an occupied structure to steal something
    • e.g a house
  16. Breaking and Entering
    • trespassing in an unoccupied structure to steal something
    • E.g a store
  17. Robbery
    threaten or cause physical harm to someone while stealing something
  18. Theft
    taking someones property without their knowledge
  19. warrant
    written order from the court authorizing the search and seizure of
  20. Mimcey V. Arizona
    • 1978 no homicide exception murder/crime scene exception
    • scene must BE SECURED
  21. Crime Scene
    the location where a crime took place and/or any location where a crime or subsequent investigation
  22. Primary Crime scene
    where the actual offense took place
  23. Secondary Crime Scene
    any location on separate from the primary scene that is related to the crime
  24. ARISN
    1. Approach
    2. Render Medical Aid
    3. Identify suspect, additional victims, and witnesses
    4. Separate the scene and physical evidence
    5. make appropriate Notifications
    Initial Response-ROle of first responder at a crime scene
  25. Arrive safely, asses the scene for danger, suspects biological natural and structural hazards.
    maintain situational awareness
    be observant for fleeing suspects or possible witnesses
    be alert for possible evidence destruction
    tire impressions, casting, blood
  26. saving lives is most important function of this point and takes priority over preserving evidence
    but....attempt to do so without destroying possible evidence
    request EMS if necessary and point out potential evidence to them
    be aware of possible multiple victims
    Render Medical Aid
  27. arrest and secure suspect keeping in mind possible evidence and clothing, shoe, hands, separate witnesses and obtain statements if suspect had fled issue BOLO (be on look out)
    identify suspect, additional victims, and witnesses
  28. Secure the scene and physical evidence securing the scene (tape)
    1. Secure the Perimeter- crime scene tape, cruisers. personnel, cones
    consider multiple layers for media, non-essential personnel
    make it large, it is easier to scale down later. remember point of entry and escape.
    2. Crime Scene log-
    Running list of all who enter the scene, date, time in, time, out, purpose. Helps to prevent non-essential personnel from entering the scene
    3. Securing physical evidence- protect fragile and transient evidence from weather and other conditions
    secure scene and physical evidence
  29. supervisors
    CS investigators
    additional personal for security
    any specialized personnel
    make appropriate notifications
  30. 1. Initial Walkthrough
    2. search for potential evidence
    3. document the scene
    4. collect and package evidence
    5. complete additional processing
    6. debrief
    Steps @ Crime Scene
  31. Initial walkthrough
    • obtain facts of the case
    • discuss legal issues -search warrent
    • determine size and scope of the scene
    • determine size and scope of the scene
    • determine what equipment or additional personnel may be needed
    • reconfigure perimeter if needed
    • set up equipment staging and use appropriate
    • PPE - personal protection equipment
  32. searching the crime scene
    • be thorough systematic and methodical
    • consider the type of crime
  33. Objects were locate or foreign to the scene
    objects that are in an unusual location
    objects that have been damaged
    when in doubt.... COLLECT IT
    Look for
  34. 1. line/strip
    2. grid
    3. spiral
    4. wheel/ ray
    5. Quadrant Zone (usually bombing)
    Five types of search patterns
  35. front=> back
    exterior first, driver=> passanger=> trunk last
    search pattern for cars
  36. Recording a Crime Scene
    • Goal: permanently document the scene
    • only have one chance to do it right
    • assist the investigation (not and in the future) required for court
  37. 1. notes
    2. photographs
    3. video
    4. sketches
    Recording the crime scene
  38. document everything, to write a report
    detailed description of the scene and what was done
    date, time, location, fact of the case , names
    weather conditions and temp( inside, outside)
    Condition of the scene (furniture overturned broken hems, forced entry open windows) descriptio of victims and wounds
    location of evidence/movements of evidence
  39. Photography goal
    • goal accurately depict the scene as you found it (conditions, layout, evidence, spatial relationships line of sight
    • complimentary to notes and sketches
    • overshoot film is cheap and flash cards are cheaper
  40. Lenses
    bends light to focus an image
  41. focal length
    • distance between the lens and the image on the film/microchip
    • 1. normal lens 50-55mm
    • 2. telephoto lens 100 mm greater
    • 3. wide angle lens <50mm
    • 4. macro lens <50mm
    • 5. multipurpose lens 28-80
  42. aperture
    distance of the opening through which light enters the camera
  43. F-stop
    a setting on the camera that controls the aperture diameter (F-number)
Card Set
Forensics Midterm