Chapter 8 The Skeletal System

  1. axial skeleton
    forms the central supporting axis of the body, includes the skull, auditory ossicles, hyoid bone, vertebral column, and thoracic cage (ribs and sternum)
  2. appendicular skeleton
    includes the bones of the upper limb and pectoral girdle and the bones of the lower limb and pelvic girdle
  3. 206 bones in the body - typical adult count
    at birth, there are 270
  4. sesamoid bones
    -bones that form within some tendons in response to stress; the patella (kneecap) is the largest of these; most of the others are small and rounded bones, like knuckles.
  5. some people have extra bones in the skull called:
    sutural or wormian bones
  6. articulations
    • condyle
    • facet
    • head
  7. condyle
    a rounded knob that articulates (joins) with another bone
  8. facet
    a smooth, flat, slightly concave or convex articular surface
  9. head
    the prominent expanded end of a bone, sometimes rounded
  10. extensions and projections
    • crest
    • epicondyle
    • line
    • process
    • protuberance
    • spine
    • trochanter
    • tubercule
    • tuberosity
  11. crest
    a narrow ridge
  12. epicondyle
    a projection superior to a condyle
  13. line
    a slighty raised, elongated ridge
  14. process
    any bony prominence
  15. protuberance
    a bony outgrowth or protruding part
  16. spine
    a sharp, slender, or narrow process
  17. trochanter
    two massive processes unique to the femur
  18. tubercule
    a small, rounded process
  19. tuberosity
    a rough elevated surface
  20. depressions
    • alveolus
    • fossa
    • fovea
    • sulcus
  21. alveolus
    a pit or socket
  22. fossa
    a shallow, broad, or elongated basin
  23. fovea
    a small pit
  24. sulcus
    a groove for a tendon, nerve or blood vessel
  25. passages & canals
    • canal
    • fissure
    • foramen
    • meatus
    • sinus
  26. canal
    a tubular passage or tunnel in a bone
  27. fissure
    a slit through a bone
  28. foramen
    a hole through a bone, usually round
  29. meatus
    an opening into a canal
  30. sinus
    an air-filled space in a bone
  31. the skull is composed of 22 bones
    it is the most complex part of the skelaton
  32. sutures
    bones are connected by these immovable joints, which are visable as seams on the surface
  33. cranial cavity
    encloses the brain
  34. foramina
    holes that allow passages for nerves and blood vessels
  35. the cranial cavity is enclosed by the cranium
    braincase, which protects the brain and associated sense organs
  36. the right and left parietal bones:
    form most of the cranial roof and part of its walls.
  37. each is bordered by four sutures that join it to the neighboring bones:
    • 1. sagittal suture
    • 2. coronal suture
    • 3. lambdoid suture
    • 4. squamous suture
  38. temporal bone
    forms the lower wall and part of the floor of the cranial cavity
  39. sphenoid bone
    complex shape with a thick median body and outstretched greater and lesser wings, which give the bone as a whole, a somewhat ragged mothlike shape
  40. optic foramen
    permits passage of the optic nerve and opthalmic artery
  41. ethmoid bone
    an interior cranial bone located between the eyes
  42. facial bones
    • -those that have no direct contact with the brain or meninges. 14 bones
    • -they support the teeth, give shape & individuality to the face, form part of the nasal and orbital cavities, and provide attachment for the muscles of facial expression and mastification
  43. maxillae
    largest facial bones, form the upper jaw
  44. alveolar process
    small points of maxillary bone that grow into the spaces between the bases of teeth
  45. alveolus
    deep socket that the tooth is inserted into
  46. 7 bones that make the orbits:
    • frontal
    • nasal
    • ethmoid
    • sphenoid
    • zygomatic
    • palatine
    • lacrimal
  47. palate
    forms the roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity
  48. palatine bones
    forms the rest of the hard palate, part of the wall of the nasal cavity and part of the wall of the orbit
  49. zygomatic bones
    forms the angles of the cheeks at the inferolateral margins of the orbits and parts of the lateral wall of each orbit
  50. lacrimal bones
    form part of the medial wall of each orbit; smallest bones of the skull
  51. nasal bones
    forms the bridge of the nose and supports cartilages that shape its lower portion
  52. vomer
    • forms the inferior half of the nasal septum
    • means "plowshare," refers to the resemblance to the blade of a plow
  53. mandible
    strongest bone of the skull; only one that can move noticably
  54. mental foramen
    permits passage of the nerves and blood vessels of the chin
  55. mandibular condyle
    oval knob that articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone
  56. temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
    the meeting of the mandibular condyle with the temporal bone and forms a hinge
  57. mandibular notch
    u-shaped arch between the two processes
  58. auditory ossicles
    • malleus (hammer)
    • incus (anvil)
    • stapes (stirrup)
  59. hyoid bone
    slender u-shaped bone between the chin and larynx
  60. fontanels
    spaces between the unfused cranial bones
  61. vertebral column (spine)
    physically supports the skull and trunk, allows for their movement, protects the spinal cord, and absorbs stresses produced by walking, running, and lifting
  62. the vertebral column
    • cervical 7
    • thoracic 12
    • lumbar 5
    • sacrum 1
    • coccyx 1
  63. intervertebral disc
    a pad consisting of an inner gelatinous nucleus pulposus surrounded by a ring of fibrocartilage, the anulus fibrosus
  64. there are ____ discs
    • 23
    • - the first one between the cervical vertebrae and the last one between the last lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum
  65. herniated disc
    ruptured or slipped disc
  66. atlas
    vertebra C1, supports the head
  67. axis
    vertebra C2, allows rotation of the head, gesturing "no"
  68. thoracic vertebrae
    • 12 (T1-T12)
    • corresponds to the 12 pairs of ribs
  69. lumbar vertebrae
    • 5 (L1-L5)
    • thick, stout body and a blunt, squarish spinous process
  70. sacrum
    a bony plate that forms the posterior wall of the pelvic cavity, once considered the seat of the soul
  71. sacral vertebrae
    in children, there are 5 seperate sacral vertebrae (S1-S5); they begin to fuse around age 16 and are fully fused by age 26.
  72. coccyx
    consists of four, sometimes five small vertebrae (Co1-Co4); fuse by the age of 20 to 30 into a single triangular bone
  73. thoracic cage
    consists of the thoracic vertebrae, sternum and ribs
  74. sternum
    breastbone; a bony plate anterior to the heart; subdivided into three regions: manubrium, body and xiphoid process
  75. ribs
    • 12 pairs; no difference between the sexes
    • each is attached at its posterior (proximal) end to the vertebral column, and most of them are also attached at the anterior (distal) end to the sternum
  76. true ribs
    • ribs 1-7
    • each has its own coastal cartilage connecting it to the sternum
  77. false ribs
    • ribs 8-12
    • lack independent cartilagenous connections to the sternum
  78. floating ribs
    ribs 11 and 12
  79. pectoral girdle
    shoulder girdle; supports the arm, consists of two bones: clavicle (collar bone) and scapula (shoulder blade)
  80. there are ___ bones per arm
  81. humerus
    upper arm bone
  82. radius
    forearm bone; thumb side
  83. ulna
    forearm bone; pinky side
  84. carpal bones
    form the wrist; arranged in two rows of four bones each
  85. carpal bones (listing)
    • scaphoid
    • lunate
    • triquetrium
    • pisiform
    • trapezium
    • trapezoid
    • capitate
    • hamate
  86. metacarpals
    bones of the palm
  87. phalanges
    bones of the fingers
  88. pollex
    thumb; made of two phalanges; three in the other digits
  89. pelvic girdle
    • consists of a complete ring of three bones:
    • two hip (coxal) bones and the sacrum (part of vertebral column)
  90. femur
    longest and strongest bone of the body
  91. patella
  92. hallux
    big toe; contains two bones; others have three
  93. arches of the foot
    • medial longitudinal arch
    • lateral longitudinal arch
    • transverse longitudinal arch
Card Set
Chapter 8 The Skeletal System
Chapter 8