POLS Test #2

  1. although americans profess a belief in equality they seem to lean away from equality of ___________
  2. what people can learn about politics depends on the stage of their mental development is an example of what psychologists call......
    cognitive development theory
  3. groups of people roughly equal in social position who interact with one another are called....
    peer groups
  4. as children grow their idealization of political authority fades to realism
  5. _____________ _________ is a persons sense of being able to accomplish something politically
    poticial efficacy
  6. an act of ______ __________ is a deliberate violation of the law as a means of asserting the illegitimacy of the law or calling attention to a higher moral principle
    civil disobebience
  7. according to the ______ ___________ ___________ the expected benefit of voting is relatively small
    rational actor model
  8. the tv network that the president and many world leaders have come to rely on for a major source of information is...
  9. the ___________ _________- requires stations to give or sell time to one political candidate if the station has given or sold time to another candidate for the same office
    equal-time doctrine
  10. when they vote, journalist greatly favor the _________ party
  11. more than print journalism tv news reporting calls for ________ of events rather than merely stating what happened
  12. the public's high degree of interest in politics is substantiated by their high level of knowledge of politics
  13. americans tend to support equality of opportunity over equality of result
  14. the effect of school as an agent of poticial socialization is sudden and dynamic as the child enters grade school
  15. once in school children tend to become less partisan
  16. political socialization differs widely between distinctive political subcultures in the united states
  17. the highest rates of political activity are among poeple with a strong commitment to a political party
  18. one of the most common methods of political participation in the united states is the direct contact of public officals
  19. most studies have shown a strong relationship between public opinion and public policy
  20. newspapers had very little influence in the united states during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
  21. many world leaders including the president of the united states often depend on cable newtwork news as a more accurate source of information than their own offical sources
  22. increased access to the mass media has resulted in greater knowledge about news events and public affairs
  23. radio and television operate under legal restraints that do not apply to print journalism
  24. voters receive more political information from political parties than from the media
  25. recent polls have revealed that the public finds that the news media are for the most part inaccurate
  26. public officals often use letters to other public officals to make news and bring an issue to the public
  27. according to recent public opinion poll most americans believe the news media are fair and unbiased
  28. television news editors prefer to emphasize stories that are visual rather than issue-oriented
  29. public opinion surveys that rate how well the president is handling the job
    can vary significantly over time
  30. a 1987 survey found out that a plurality of the public says they follow government and public affairs
    most of the time
  31. most americans
    have positive images about their country's political social and economic institutions
  32. in recent years american public opinion has
    shifted to the right
  33. the theory suggesting that there are some things that can be learned only early in life and other things that can be learned only later in life is called....
    cognitive development theory
  34. research indicates that the transmission of poticial attitudes from parents to their offspring is substantial only when
    attitudes relate to topis that reguarly come up in family discussions
  35. the principal explicit teacher of information about politics is
    the school
  36. the first poitical thoughts acquired by a small child is a
    • psychological attachment to america
    • primitive sense of party identification
    • sense of external authority above parental authority
  37. major political and social events seem to have the most powerful and lasting effect on those who experice them in their
    teens and early twenties
  38. the largest substantially different subcutlure in the united states is
    african americas
  39. factors that motivate people to participate in politics
    • high sense of civi duty
    • strong snse of political identification
    • desire for social rewards
  40. acts of civil diobedience have ebeen justified on the basis of
  41. the percent of americans who say that they have themselves broken the law in a protest for potical or social cause is
  42. according to verba and nie the category of citizen participation that ocmprises about 4% of the population consists of mainly lower-status groups catholics and urban dwellers and show little partisan or ideological involvement is
    parochial participants
  43. according to the rational actor model which of the following activities would be considered the most rational and effective form of political participation?
    letter writing to public officials
    collective acativities
    potical assassination
    collective ativities
  44. a major source of news and information for many world leaders and governemnt agencies today is
  45. the primary source for national news for most americans is
  46. freedom of the press is protected by the
    first amendment
  47. the best description of the political status of the sirwaves is that it is
    privately owned but under goevernment supervision
  48. the requirement that stations devote a reasonable percentage of airtime to discussions of both sides of public issues was called the
    fairness doctrine
  49. when editor and journalists decide in large measure what american people will know about they are performing the media role of
  50. factors that seem to guide the selection of news stories include
    • political turning points
    • scoops
    • economics
  51. the part of government that recieves the most press coverage is the
    white house
  52. tv presidential debates emphasize the
    style or image of the candidate
  53. In most places in the united states potential voters are required to _________ before they are allowed to vote
  54. two social characteristics that show the strongest relation to voting turnout are _______ and _______
    age and education
  55. the three major factors that seem most to influence how poeple vote are ________ _____________ and _________
    • parties
    • candidates
    • issues
  56. the three virtures that voters see to consider most important in a candidate are attractive personal qualities ___________ and ____________
    • experience
    • leadership
  57. the most important quality to be a presidential contender is ___________
  58. thoday presidential candiates tend to rely on more professional _______ ___________ to pla and execute their compaign strategy
    campaign consultants
  59. a major criticism of media is their tendency to focus on the _________________ aspects of the presidental cmapign at the expense of the issues
    horse race
  60. a major loophole in the controls on money that can be spent on a presidental candidate's behald is the ability of state and local parties to raise ____ __________
    soft money
  61. a house district where party affiliation is so lopsided that one or the other party is assured vistory is called ________ ___________
    safe seat
  62. a presidental candidate whoe popularity appears to give a boost to his party's candidates for the house and senate is said to have _______
  63. studies have shown that younger people are more likely to vote than older people
  64. increasing political alienation or distrust has been shown to be the promary reason for low voter turnout in the united states
  65. in recent years politcial party affiliation has become less important determinant of voting decisions
  66. the best assurance of being elected president is already to be president
  67. condidates tend to favor long tv advertisements in order to maximize public exposure and issue funds
  68. an incumbent president had little to gain in accepting a debate with his opponent
  69. the electoral college results in small states represented out of proportion to their population
  70. candidates for the house and senate seceive a small amount of public financing too little to run a successful campaign
  71. women are given the right to vote by the
    19th amendent
  72. the two social characteristics that show the strongest relation to voting are
    age and education
  73. each of the following may be considered a reason for declining voter turnout except
    increasing political alienation and distrust
  74. voters tend to prefer presidential candidates with
    • experience
    • leadership qualities
    • attractive personal qualities
  75. in recent years seious contenders for the presidency
    have most often come from the successful side of mainstream america
  76. in recent years the media campaign for presidential elections has
    been devoted to shot tv advertisements that focus on simple images and issues
  77. the federal election campaign act
    requires full disclosure of sources and uses of campaign funds
  78. soft money refers to money
    raised by state and local parties for certain activities without any restriction
  79. t
  80. the most common method by which political parties choose presidential electors in the states is through a
    closed primary
  81. the choice of a running mate is usually made
    to balance the ticket geographically or ideologically
  82. presidential debates
    are most advantageous for nonincumbents
  83. after incumbency the single most important dterminant of voting in congressional races is
  84. midterm congressional elections
    are often viewed as a referendum on how the president is doing
  85. james madison wrote in ________ about the dangers of factions
    federalism #10
  86. PACs blossomed into prominence as a result of the _______ ______ ______ _____
    Federal Election Act of 1974
  87. interest groups legislators and administrators are sometimes called the ___________ of american politics
    iron triangle
  88. interest groups have brought cases before the courts through ___- _- ________- representing a large number of individuals with the same grievance
    class action suits
  89. america has been known as the ____-- _______ society because it consists of people of all races and nationalities
    melting pot
  90. no issues in recent year has drawn religious groups more into the political fray than ___________
  91. the tendency for diiferent coalitions to form on different issues is called _
    cross-cutting cleavage
  92. when an overabundance of interest groups refusing to compromise develops the situation is called an interest group ____________
    grid lock
  93. on of the ___________ functions of parties is to educate citisens and mobilize them into political action
  94. a change in party systems occurs after a shot period of political turnmoil and change called
  95. in the second american party system the spiritual descendants of the federalist party was the ______ party
  96. one of the major reasons why the united states has a two-party system is because of the system of _________ elections
  97. a statement of political party's proposed program is called its _______
  98. all of the groups of people who together make up the main supporters of particular party are called the party's ___________
  99. the increase in party identification since 1978 has primarily benefited the __________ party
  100. groups that stay within the political mainstream tend to be influential
  101. most PACs are registered with the Federal Election Commission
  102. PACs are especially significant at the national level for the presidential campaigns
  103. the influence of agricultural organizations have been on the rise since the Reagan administration
  104. less than two percent of the african americans population belongs to the NAACP
  105. the influence of the christian right declined dramatically in the late 1980s
  106. when parties recruit and train political leaders they are performing one of their electoral functions
  107. political parties are formally sanctioned in article 3 section 4 of the constitution
  108. the democratic party was the first truly national political system
  109. a system of proportional representation encourages the development of a two-party system
  110. third parties have had very little influence on the american political system
  111. the relationship between the national state and local party organizations follows a strict hierarchical pattern
  112. throughout the 1970s and 1980s party discipline and coordination seemed to dteriorate
  113. the increasae in the number of single-issue interest groups has contributed to the resurgence of political parties based on new coalitions
  114. the political parties have shown a keen ability to eventually adapt to changing circumstance
  115. the theory that sees power as dispersed among many different centers of power is called
  116. the more politically influential groups in america tend to be
  117. the major means by which interest groups try o create public support or sympathy for their political goals is
    the mass media
  118. the federal election act of 1974 set the limit on individual contributions to candidates at
  119. lobbyists
    are important channels by which PAC money gets to legislators
  120. the iron triangle of american politics consist of
    interest group representatives legislators and administrators
  121. regarding the judicial process interest groups
    use class action suits to further their causes
  122. the american federation of labor-congress of industrial organizations
    spearheads political activity on behalf of organized labor
  123. which of the following statements about the national organization for women is false?
    it supports freedom of choice on abortion
    it is not actively involved in electoral politics
    it has only about 160,000 members
    it is the most prominent women's political organization
    it is not actively involved in electoral politics
  124. most african americans
    support the democratic party
  125. in recent years the most important political issue concerning religious groups
  126. americans for democratic action is a
    ideological group
  127. an example of single-issue group would be
    national right-to-life committe
  128. a factor that helps contribute to stability in the american system of interest group politics is
    cross-cutting cleavages
  129. when a pluralistic system becomes paralyzed when too many interest groups refuse to compromise is known as
    interest group gridlock
  130. the main difference between groups and parties is that
    interest groups do not run condidates for public office
  131. functions of political parties
    • providing a psychological hook that pulls poeple into politics
    • structuring people's perceptions of politics
    • providing a source of political stability

    NOT giving coherence to governmental policy
  132. each party system evolved from its predecessor in a relatively short period of political turmoil and change called
  133. the first truly national political party was the
    democratic party
  134. the underlying cause for the shift from the fourth to the fifth american party system was
    the great depression
  135. since 1968 the most dramatic shit in voting patterns has been in the
  136. a multiparty system is most likely to occur when the electoral system is based on
    proportional representation
  137. third parties in the american political system
    have forced the major parties to address important issues
  138. activities that occur at the party's national convention
    • writing the party's platform
    • selecting the party's candidates for president and vice-president
    • formally designating the national committee
  139. which of the following statements about the party in the electorate is false?
    party identification is based on pyschological identification
    the party in the electorate is defined by people saying they think of themselves as belonging to a party
    various groups in society come together to form a party's coalition
    party identification is very stable over time
    party identification is very stable over time
  140. part of the evidence that political parties were in decline by the 1970s and the 1980s include
    a decrease in the percentage of people who identified with a political party
  141. which of the following is considered a cause of party decline?
    the increased use of political patronage
    the rise of the public welfare system
    the inability of parties and candidates to master the mass media
    the increased use of caucuses to choose candidates
    the rise of public welfare system
  142. which of the following is not a consequence of party decline?
    citizens are not socialized into politics
    electoral alternatice become confusing
    campaigns and elections become fragmented
    power beomces more centralized
    power becomes more centralized
  143. evidence that the party in government is in resurgence includes the fact that
    congressional campaign committees have been strengthened
Card Set
POLS Test #2