1. What is a Urinary Tract Infection?
    • A UTI is an infection that begins in your urinary system. This includes kidneys, ureters, bladders and urethra
    • Most infections occur in the lower urinary tract (bladder and urethra)
    • Usually caused by one or two organisms and can be treated with antibiotics
  2. Name the general symptoms of a UTI
    • Strong, persistent urge to urinate
    • Burning sensation when urinating
    • Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
    • Cloudy Urine
    • Blood in Urine
    • Pelvic Pain (Women) or Rectum Pain ( Men)
  3. A kidney infection is also know as:
    acute pyelonephritis
  4. Name symptoms specific to a kidney infection (acute pyelonephritis)
    • upper back and side pain
    • high fever
    • shaking and chills
    • nausea
    • vomiting
  5. A bladder infection is also known as:
  6. Name symptoms specific to a bladder infection (cystitis)
    • pelvic pressure
    • lower abdomen discomfort
    • frequent painful urination
    • blood in urine
  7. Name symptom specific to urethra infection (urethritis)
    burning with urination
  8. General cause of UTIs
    Bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and then multiply in the bladder
  9. Name causes specific to cystitis
    • E.Coli (GI Tract Bacteria)
    • Sexual Intercourse
    • Close proximity of urethra to anus
    • Short distance between urethral opening and bladder
  10. Urethritis is cause when
    GI bacteria spread from anus to urethra
  11. Name some risk factors for contracting a UTI (7)
    • Being a female (due to a shorter urethra)
    • Being sexually active
    • Undergoing menopause (lack of estrogen cause change-induced vulnerability)
    • Urinary Tract Abnormalities
    • Blockages in the Urinary Tract (kidney stones or enlarged prostate)
    • Suppressed immune system (Diabetes, etc)
    • Use of cather
  12. Complications from UTIs generally arise when:
    • The UTI is left untreated
    • In the cases of acute pyelonephritis
    • In pregnant women, who generally subsequently have LBW or premature babies
  13. How much bacteria is needed to qualify for a UTI?
    Greater than 1,000-100,000 bacteria/mL of urine is needed to be considered a UTI
  14. Urine samples can be obtained in one of the 3 following ways:
    • catheters
    • clean catch method
    • suprapubic aspiration
  15. What Gram positive bacteria are expected to be found int he case of a UTI?
    • -staphylococcus (especially S. Epidermis)--->often due to catherization
    • -streptococcus (especially S. pyogenes)
    • -enterococcus faecalis
  16. What Gram Negative bacteria are expected to be found in the case of a UTI?
    • Neisseria (N. Gonnorhoeae, N. Meningitidis)
    • E. Coli
    • Enterobacter (all types)
    • proteus
    • salmonella & shigella
    • chlamydia
    • klebsiella ( K. pneumoniae)
    • psuedomonas aeruginosa
Card Set
Urinary Tract Infections