1. Landed on the Mexican coast and overthrew the Aztec empire in 2 years
    Hernan Coretez
  2. spanish catholic priest who had participated in the plunder of cuba but suffered a crisis of consience and renounced conquest
    bart de las cases
  3. first conquistador to try to attempt to expand spanish conquest
    ponce de leon
  4. commander that lost most of his men in a shipwreck
    panfilo de narvaez
  5. published an account of his adventures in which he told of a north american empire known as cibola
    cabaza de vance
  6. landed in 1539 in florida with a cuban army that stole food and slaves from mississippi settlers
    hernan de soto
  7. a 1494 arrangement between spain and portugal. the pope helped and stuff and it told where the dividing line was in south america
    treaty of tordesillas
  8. reformation that began when martin luther in 1517 publicized his differences with rome
    protestant reformation
  9. supported catholic church until refusal of annulment and formed the anglican church
    king henry 8
  10. calvin's french followers
  11. fort that don pedro menendez founded
    st augustine
  12. genoan navigator that reached new england in 1497
    john cabot
  13. explored the st. lawrence and established france's imperial claim to the lands of canada
    jacques cartier
  14. rose to the throne when sister died, outlawed catholocism but tried to end religious turmoil by being tolerant
    elizabeth 1
  15. argued that new world colonies would be populated by loiterers and vagabonds
    richard hakluyt
  16. sent by elizabeth to subdue irish and make farm settlements
    sir humphry gilbert
  17. spanish king who got mad that england was taking his countrys land
    phillip 2
  18. 130 ships with 30,000 men that attacked the british isles
    spanish armada
  19. a revolt of more than 20 indian towns against the spanish, led by pope (popay) of san juan pueblo
    pueblo uprising
  20. an agent of the royal canadian company. helped establish the outpost of port royal. three years later he founded quebec
    samuel de champlain
  21. first permanent french settlement in north america
  22. fur trade commander who navigated the mississippi to its mouth on the gulf of mexico and claimed its entire watershed for france
    de la salle
  23. issued royal charters for the colonization of the mid atlantic region to english joint stock companies
    james 1
  24. raised capital by selling shares
    joint stock company
  25. group of london investors that sent ships to the temperate latitudes of chesapeake bay, where they established jamestown
    virginia company
  26. first permanent english settlement in north america
  27. powerful leader of a confederacy of algonquin tribes
  28. jamestown's military leader
    john smith
  29. winter of 1609-1610. john smith left. out of 500 only 60 colonists lived by the end of the winter.
    the starving time
  30. pocahontas' brother who succeeded powhatan
  31. leading settler of jamestown who married pocahontas. figured out how to grow tobacco
    john rolfe
  32. included representatives of virginia's buroughs. first elective assemply in the new world
    House of Burgesses
  33. important supporters of monarchy. set up maryland, a refuge for catholics. passed the first toleraction act in the new world.
    calvert family
  34. granted to king's friends as a business venture. proprieter appointed governor. setup law courts, collected taxes, allowed some self govt, offered bounties
    proprietory colony
  35. people who contracted to labor for a mster for a fixed term, in exchange for the cost of their transportation to the new world.
    indentured servants
  36. leader of the puritans. preached predestination
    john calvin
  37. religion formed by john calvin, wished to purify and reform the english church from within
  38. james's son and successor. puritans criticized him for supporting high church policies
    charles 1
  39. english separitists, belived that the anglican church was so corrupt that they must establish their own independant church. sailed to america on the mayflower in september 1620
  40. first instance of local govt in the new world. signed by the pilgrims
    mayflower compact
  41. leader of the local tribe of wampanoags. offered food and advice in return for an alliance with the newcomers against his enemies.
  42. interpreter in the negotiations between the pilgrims and the wampanoags
  43. first governer of new england
    john winthrop
  44. puritan emigration to massachusetts
    great migration
  45. leader of england who took over after king charles died. tried to make england a puritan country
    oliver cromwell
  46. massachusetts wife and mother; first published poet of new england
    anne bradstreet
  47. twenty people were tried, condemned, and executed for witchcraft in 1693
    salem witchcraft trials
  48. led his followers west of the connecticut river and founded the town of hartford
    thomas hooker
  49. marked the beginning of the colony of connecticut. first written constitution in the new world.
    fundamental orders of connecticut
  50. came to new england in 1631 to take up duties for the congregation in salem. believed in religious toleration. founded rhode island colony
  51. led religious discussion groups that criticized boston ministers for a lack of piety. was kicked out then died to indians.
    anne hutchinson
  52. established several proprietory colonies in north america. restored to the throne after cromwell died
    charles 2
  53. extended from the trading town of albany down the hudson, to the island city of new amsterdam
    new netherland
  54. where the swedes settled n stuff
  55. new amsterdam, renamed this, when charles appointed it to his brother james, duke of york
    new york
  56. society of friends. believed in equality of all people
  57. made pennsylvania a religious haven for quakers
    william penn
  58. convinced that his people must break their alliance with plymouth and take up armed resistance. aka king phillip
  59. began a concerted effort to strengthen royal control of colonies. (dominion of new england)
  60. est by james 2 bc he wanted more control over colonies. turned ny, ne, nj into a super-colony. took away charters and self gov't
    dominion of new england
  61. royal governer of the dominion of new england. americans hated him
    edmund andros
  62. king james 2 was removed from power. allowed americans to get rid of dominion of new england
    glorious revolution
  63. german merchant who tried to take over new york
    jacob leisler
  64. native to america, thus born into slavery
    country born slaves
  65. endured shock at their homes being torn apart by slavery
    salt water africans
  66. middle part of the triangle from england to africa, africa to america, and america to england. voyage slaves made
    middle passage
  67. young south carolina woman who successfully adapted west indian indigo to the low climate
    elizabeth lucas pinckney
  68. georgia's leader that helped to establish abuffer against spanish invasion from florida.
    james oglethorp
  69. country born slaves
  70. 2 most important dialects of the slaves. creole languages
    gullah and geeche
  71. runaway slaves. means "wild & untamed"
  72. slave uprising. slaves rebelled and killed 30 people. stopped to celebrade in a field but got caught and killed
    stono rebellion
  73. slaves gathered together killed 9 colonists; most killed themselves.. others were hanged and burnned n stuff
    nyc rebellion
  74. trade sytem where raw goods from the colonies are transported to mother country. mother country produces manufactured goods, makes colonies buy them back. colonies are not allowed to trade w/ anyone else
  75. began the long struggle for colonial supremacy in north america that was not concluded until 1763
    king william's war
  76. a conflict that pitted great britain and its allies against france and spain
    queen anne's war
  77. great britain and france fought in acadia and nova scotia.
    king georges war
  78. created to try and enforce trade regulations. was not enforced by britain too good
    navigation acts
  79. england forbade colonial maufactue of wool hats and iron
    wool, hat, and iron acts
  80. any colonial rules and regulations deemed contrary to good business practice were simply ignored and not enforced
    salvatory neglect
  81. placed a prohibitive duty on sugar products brought from forien colonies to north america
    molasses act
  82. belief that one race is superior to another
  83. went from ca, az, nm, all the way over to florida. furthest outreach of the spanish in the americas
    spanish borderlands
  84. spanish military posts that would be in the borderlands
  85. president of the missions in baja
    junipero serra
  86. used to convert indians
    mission system
  87. french stamps on the north american landscape stretching back from the rivers that provided each settler family a share of good bottomaldn to farm as well as frontage on the waterways
    long-lot pattern
  88. french for mestizo
  89. system of town and church government. like a lil village with the church in the middle
    new england township system
  90. allowed other protestand denominations to worship openly. passed by parliament in 1700
    toleration act
  91. beyond the first range of the appalachian highlands; northern reaches of the great valley, which extended southwest from pennsylvania into virginia. very rugged area where like irish n scottsirish ppl settled
    the back country
  92. white people of all ranks held a great gathering that included public business, horse racing, and perhaps a bbq.
    court day!
  93. an apprentice would go from apprentice->journeyman->master->artisan then he could open his own shop
    european craft system
  94. families without means of travel who arranged with the ships owner to pay their passage on arrival in north america
  95. what a servent might recieve if he or she endured intentured servitude. might include a suit of clothes, tools, money, sometimes land
    freedom dues
  96. espanoles
  97. persons of mixed backround
  98. homeless people who travelled from town to town looking for work or a handout
    strolling poor
  99. governed new spain with a viceroy
    council of indians
  100. leader in mexico city. representative of spanish king in colonies
  101. idea that the universe was governed by natural laws that people could understand and apply to their own advantage
  102. articulated a philosophy of reason in proposing that the state existed to provide for the happiness and security of individuals. his ideas are found in the declaration of independance
    john locke
  103. almanac written by ben franklin. contained enlightenment ideas
    poor richard's almanac
  104. an agreement that members children who had not experienced conversion themselves could join as halfway members of the puritan church
    half way covenant
  105. beleif that god had predetermined who would go to heaven
  106. belief that god had given the freedom to choose salvation by developing their faith and good works
  107. sparked a movement challenging the enlightenment's rationalist approach to religion
    jonathan edwards
  108. many colonists were brought back to protestantism
    great awakening
  109. great global war for empire. started in america
    seven years war / french&indian war
  110. convened by officials of the british board of trade who wanted the colonies to consider an collective response to the continuing conflict with new france and the indians of the interior.
    albany conference
  111. ben franklin's idea. proposed that everything of mutual interest to the colonies be placed under the authority of a grand council composed of representatives electedby the colonial assemblys and led by a royally appointed president. rejected by the colonial assemblies
    albany plan of union
  112. fortress from where france guarded its fishing grounds and the st lawrence approach to new france. captured by colonists but then england sold it back
  113. young militia officer from virginia. was forced to surrender his troops to a french force near the headwaters of the mononguahela river
    george washington
  114. french built it at the forks of ohio and named for the governer of french canada. where the french canadians now commanded the interior country from
    fort duquesne
  115. general who led two irish regiments across the atlantic in 1755 to attack and destroy fort duquesne
    edward braddock
  116. acadians who ended up settling in louisiana under spanish control
  117. pittsburgh is named after this guy
    william pitt
  118. british force took control of fort duquesne, renaming it this
    fort pitt
  119. epic battle on the plains of abraham before the city's walla. the british prevailed over quebec's defenders. more than 2000 british french american and canadians lost their lives
    battle of quebec
  120. british general who ordered his troops to plunder farms and shell the city of quebec. lost his life in the battle of quebec
    james wolfe
  121. french commander who lost his life in the battle of quebec
  122. signed in 1763. france lost all its possessions on the north american mainland
    treaty of paris 1763
  123. british military governer/general who banned resents to indian chiefs and tribes, demanding that they learn to live without charity
    jeffrey amherst
  124. ottowa chief, renouned as an orator and political leader
  125. indian visionary neolin. taught that indians had been corrupted by european ways and needed to purify themselves by returning to their traditions and preparing for a holy war
    delaware prophet
  126. said that the land west of the appalachian mountains was indian territory for the time being
    proclamation line 1763
  127. dunmore provoked a frontier war w/ the shawnees then forced their cession of the ohio river valley and virginia
    dunmore's war
  128. nyc editor who was indicted for seditious libel after printing antigovernment articles
    john peter zenger
  129. people from england who were like political philosophers. believed people should be able to vote
  130. declared that the truly just society provided the greatest possible liberty to individuals. must limit gov / no such thing as absolute power
  131. chancellor of the exchequer. decided to obtain the needed expenses of the french&indian war from america and pushed through parliament an act known as the sugar act
    george grenville
  132. placed a prohibitive duty on sugar imported into the colonies and revitalizsed the customs service, introducing stricter registration procedures for ships and adding more officers. first act to raise money (all others were to control trade)
    sugar act
  133. court where customs cases were heard. did not have jurys
    vice-admiralty courts
  134. a tax on all paper goods. affected lawyers printers and taver owners. had to be paid in hard money. came during a period of economic stagnation
    stamp act
  135. members of parliament were thought to represent not just their districts but all districts of the empire
    virtual representation
  136. direct relationship that must exist between the people and their political representatives
    actual representation
  137. an associate and friend of james otis who had made his career in local politics
    samuel adams
  138. encouraged moderate forms of protest
    sons of liberty
  139. met in ny; said you cant tax us, GB! you cant control our trade and we're gonna boycott you !!!!! no taxation without representation etc.
    stamp act congress
  140. parliaments assertion of its full authority to make laws binding the colonies "in all cases whatsoever"
    declaratory act
  141. chancellor of exchequer who asked for b.franklin's opinion on taxes
  142. wrote influential articles that were printed in nearly every colonial newspaper
    john dickenson
  143. new and strengthened. sent to make sure that the americans paid the townsend duties. but townsend did not pay them a salaray. became very corrupt and accused everyone of smuggling to make more money
    board of customs commissioners
  144. groups of women who supported all of the actions of the patriots
    daughters of liberty
  145. people who stood up to the british for our rights; the representatives that voted 92-17 to defy the english governer
    glorious 92
  146. appointed to communicate with other towns regarding what the british were doing to take away american's rights
    comittees of correspondance
  147. gave the british east india company a monopoly on all imports of tea in the americas
    tea act
  148. sons of liberty dumped 150,000 dollars worth of tea into the boston harbor
    boston tea party
  149. calculated to punish massachusetts and strengthen the british hand
  150. legalized the housing of british troops in private homes
    quartering act
  151. created a highly centralized govt for canada; made catholocism official rel; gave back land that the french lost in the frenchindian war
    quebec act
  152. included samuel adams, john adams, george washington, patrick henry. met originally to figure out what to do about the intolerable acts. decided on boycotts.
    first continental congress
  153. look over functions of local governments throughout colonies
    commitees of observation and safety
  154. alerted the militia that the british were coming.
    paul revere and william dawes
  155. first battles of the revolutionary war
    lexington and concord
  156. written by john dickenson; americans professed their attatchment to king george and begged him to prevent further hostilities so that there might be an accomodation
    olive branch petition
  157. bloodiest battle of american revolution. british lost 1/8 of their officers. fought at breeds hill
    battle of bunker hill
  158. general who had replaced Gage. fled to nova scotia with 1000 american loyalists
    william howe
  159. alienated the planter class by promising freedom to any slave who would fight with the british
    governer dunmore
  160. written by thomas paine. a pamphlet .. n stuff.. first outright call for independance
    common sense
  161. where washington and the continental army stayed for winter quarters
    valley forge
  162. army that was enlisted and paid by the continental congress under the command of g.washington
    continental army
  163. armed body of men drawn from local communities. citizen soldiers defender their own states. usually didnt travel far from their own states
  164. published a series of satires supporting the american cause and scorning the loyalists
    mercy otis warren
  165. americans who remained loyal to the british crown. 20 percent of pop.
  166. hero of the early battles of the revolution; but later became a traitor
    benedict arnold
  167. head of the british army in nyc; evacuated philidelphia
    general henry clinton
  168. merceneries from germany who faught for the british
  169. washington and continental army were trapped. john glover and fishing fleed removed the entire army
    battle of long island
  170. hessian headquarters. washington defeated them here in a suprise attack on christmas night
  171. inflicted heavy losses in the british; drove them back to nyc
  172. where burgoyne's army was surrounded by a considerably larger force of americans. turning point of the american revolution because france openly became our allys
  173. where the british outflanked the americans, inflicting heavy casualties and forcing a retreat
    brandywine creek
  174. french foreing minister
  175. last major battle in the north; was a draw
  176. led a large number of cherokees in the summer of 1776 to attack dozens of american settlements
  177. virginian who countered indian attacks by organizing an expedition of militia forces against the french towns in the illinois county
    george rogers clark
  178. last royal governor of virginia who issued a proclamation calling on slaves to desert their masters and take up arms with the british
    lord dunmore
  179. most significant american defeat in the war
    battle of charleston
  180. appointed to succeed gates after the disaster at camden. picked cornwallis's army to pieces
    nathanael greene
  181. commander of the british; surrendured at yorktown
    charles cornwallis
  182. french landed 5000 troops at newport under him, and in 1781 he risked joining his force to washington's continentals north of newyork
  183. 16,000 american and rench troops converged on less than 8000 british. cornwallis opted to give up. final battle of the american revolution
  184. first written constitution of the united states. first formal govt
    articles of confederation
  185. one of the country's wealthiest merchants. became superintendant of finance in may 1781, was trying to fix the economy
    robert morris
  186. a series of seperate agreements among the us, gb, france, and spain. signed at versailles. gb acknowlegded independance, allowed us to fish in newfoundland, spain got florida etc
    treaty of paris 1783
  187. greatest achievement of the confederation governments. provided for the physical development of western land. divided them into townships so they could be sold
    land ordinance
  188. (add-a-state-plan) congress established a system of government for the territory north of the ohio
    northwest ordinance
  189. wealthy planter and brilliant political philosopher; wrote the virginia declaration of rights in june 1776
    george mason
  190. one of the most accomplished mathematics and astronomers of late 18th century america. helped to build washington dc
    benjamin banneker
  191. female slave who published poetry
    phyllis wheatly
  192. new york lawyer who had served during the revolution; advocated a strong central government
    alexander hamilton
  193. wanted a strong central government
  194. meeting to talk about trade problems. 5/13 states showed up
    annapolis convention
  195. introduced a set of purely federal principles known as the new jersey plan
    william paterson
  196. slaves would be counted as 3/5 of a free man
    three fifths compromise
  197. each state would select a slate of electors equal in number to the states total representation in the house and state
    electoral college
  198. supporters of the new constitution
  199. people who opposed the new constitution
    anti federalists
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