1. an invisible sacred quality that inhabited all things in the universe--rocks, trees, and living beings
  2. spirit companion that accompanied Maya humans and deities
  3. sacred tree of the Maya, believed to grow in the center of Maya paradise/heaven of sorts where souls departed to
  4. all-pervasive creator deity, a king of the gods, the first priest, inventor of writing, and a curer of disease; patron of the day Ajaw (the final and most important of the 20 days)
    Itzamnaaj/Schellhas God D
  5. rain and storm god, associated with creation and life, important to farmers; depicted as reptilian
    Chaak/God B
  6. sun god, recognized by his crossed eyes/t-shaped incisors/snakelike mouth curls
    K'inich Ajaw/God G
  7. lightning deity, a personification of the smoking ax carried by Chaak, often assumed he was a patron deity of kings
    K'awiil/God K
  8. maize god, father of the hero twins, benevolent deity representing life, prosperity, and abundance; had many enemies--and his destiny was controlled by rain, wind, famine, drought, and death (like maize itself)
    Hun Hunapu/God E
  9. skeletal death god, often wears bells in his hair or around limbs, seems to encompass a god of war and death by human sacrifice
    Kimi/God A
  10. "black scorpion," black deity of merchants, patron of cacao, has a large, drooping underlip
    Ek Chuaj/God M
  11. rainbow deity, aged goddess with a serpent headdress and jaguar claw hands; venerated as goddess of fertility, childbirth, and weaving
    Chaak Chel
  12. the skybearer, has four aspects that were charged with supporting the sky at each cardinal point; also identified as Mam, an ancient earth deity
    Pauahtun or Bakab/God N
  13. the feathered serpent, Quetzalcoatl, supernatural patron of rulers, learning, and merchants
  14. name is unknown, principal lord of the underworld defeated by the Hero Twins, patron of commerce and tribute
    God L
  15. young beautiful woman, associated with fertility and maize, often paired with the sun god, often seated in the crescent moon holding a rabbit
    Moon Goddess
  16. people who produced more food and other desired goods, or controlled them by being successful in trading with others; gained greater status and prestige from their successes; Early Preclassic
  17. complex societies managed by an elite class under a chief whose power derived principally from the stewardship of religion and economic exchange
  18. the obligation of nonelite people to provide a certain amount of their labor each year for tasks, had mainly practical benefits at first, but Maya elite expanded control and reaped increasing benefits from the subjects' work
    corvee labor
  19. Late Postclassic
    • AD 1250-1524+
    • Highland kingdoms and conquest
  20. Early Postclassic
    • AD 1000-1250
    • Chichen Itza in N. lowlands
  21. Terminal Classic
    • AD 800-1000
    • Collapse in Southern/Central lowlands
  22. Late Classic
    • AD 600-800
    • "High point" of Southern/Central lowlands
  23. Early Classic
    • AD 250-600
    • Rise of great cities, writing blossoms
  24. Late preclassic
    • 400 BC-AD 250
    • First Maya state emerged
  25. Middle Preclassic
    • 1100-400 BC
    • Beginnings of Maya culture; public architecture
  26. Early Preclassic
    • 2000-1100 BC
    • Start of agriculture? Villages? (No Maya data)
    • Pottery
  27. Archaic
    • 6000-2000 BC
    • Foragers, limited nomads
    • Regional cultural differences
  28. Paleoindian
    • c. 11000-6800 BC
    • Pleistocene Hunter/Gatherers
  29. 260-day ritual calendar
    20 named days; numbers 1-13 = both alternate together
  30. 365-day solar calendar (vague solar year)
    No leap year
    18 months of 20 days + 1 month of 5 days
  31. occurs every 52 years, when the T'zolkin and Haab' match up
    4 parts (2 for each calendar)
    Like a Maya century
    Calendar Round
  32. counts the days since the most recent creation (11 Aug 3114 BC)
    Maya Long Count
  33. Calendar Day (#1-20/0)
  34. 20-day calendar period (0-19)
  35. year of 360 days (#1-20/0)
  36. score of years (1-20/0)
  37. 400 year period (#1-20/0)
  38. Maya region characterized by ocean resources and fast rivers
    Cacao and rubber tree resources
    Lots of mangrove swamps
    Very fertile, high in volcanic soils
    Once had dense forests
    Lots of Preclassic sites
    Pacific Coast/Piedmont
  39. Maya region with rich volcanic soils
    Lots of earthquakes, few valleys
    Rugged terrain
    Cool/cold temperatures
    Oak/pine forests
    Sites: Kaminaljuyu
    Southern Highlands
  40. Maya region with moist cloud forests
    Moderate temperatures, metamorphic in the south to karstic terrain in the north, rugged
    Relatively few large sites
    Northern Highlands
  41. Maya region with great rivers, flat terrain
    Highest rainfall of the regions
    Mostly limestone, lots of caves
    Classic Maya cities: Yaxchilan, Pusilha, Seibal
    Southern Lowlands
  42. Maya site of "Classic" rainforests
    Few large rivers; lake zone connections in Peten
    Low karstic (limestone) hills
    Subtropical boundary
    Biggest Classic sites: Tikal, Calakmul, Caracol
    Central Lowlands
  43. Maya region with subtropical conditions--lots of rainfall, very hot
    No surface water, no lakes or rivers (Limestone absorbs it)
    Instead, there are sink holes
    Flat except for Puuc Hills
    Terminal Classic sites: Chichen Itza, Uxmal
    In far NW, salt pans and poor agricultural potential
    All in Mexico
    Northern Lowlands
  44. obese human figures carved in the round from boulders, often monumental in size, distinctive component of southern Late Preclassic sculptural traditions
    pot-bellied monument
  45. transition from the Middle Preclassic to the Late Preclassic in the lowlands was marked by _____________
    population growth
  46. capital of an extensive polity at the hub of a causeway network that radiates from the site, core is laid out along an east-west axis, within the core are huge arch. complexes and individual structures, including the triadic pyramid
    El Mirador
  47. Preclassic Maya innovation, composed of a central structure flanked by two smaller structures on a single basal platform
    Triadic pyramid
  48. largest and most powerful LP kingdom in the Maya lowlands
    El Mirador
  49. one of the largest LP capitals on the Pacific coast, no carved stone monuments, founded as a polity capital
    El Ujuxte
  50. important southern Maya site with an array of carved monuments representing both Maya and Olmec style, Long Count dates place them in the LP
    Tak'alik Ab'aj
  51. large, well-preserved site with monumental structures and about 40 stone monuments, once site of cacao production, had water mgmt system, likely the capital of an important polity, southern Maya
    Chocola, Guatemala
  52. remote site recently discovered, with over 100 masonry structures, most major structures date to the LP, much has been looted, most significant find comes from Str. 1, housing the most important Preclassic mural found at a Maya site
    San Bartolo
  53. small Preclassic center, strategic location gave access to marine resources, transformed into a small regal center
    Cerros, Belize
  54. largest known Preclassic center in Yucatan, local occupation spanned 2000 years, population grew throughout, several ceremonial complexes date to the LP, probably controlled nearby salt resources on the shore
    Komchen, Yucatan, Mexico
  55. southern Maya site that traded with Teotihuacan and Ctrl Mexico in the Early Classic; cacao was a chief export; declined after 200 years and was replaced by Montana
  56. transitional period of one or two centuries between the Preclassic and Classic eras in the lowlands; marked by the appearance of polychrome pottery
  57. principal power of the lowlands prior to the Classic, first lowland capital to be ruled by a dynasty of kings, major focal point for economic and political contact with the southern Maya area in the LP, declined/abandoned by the EC
    El Mirador
  58. corporate group defined by their shared origins, residence, status, property, priveleges, and right to rule
    royal house
  59. reinforces political power by an implicit threat of force; used/possessed by kings in Maya preindustrial states
    coercive power
  60. shared concepts and an ideological basis for rule between the ruler himself and his subjects; based in Maya worldview that considered kings responsible for the world order by appeasing the supernatural powers of the universe
    moral authority
  61. In the lowlands, the title for the highest political authority
    k’uhul ajaw
  62. lady lord
    ix ajaw
  63. especially powered/"high" kings with the authority to preside at ceremonies conducted by subordinate rulers
  64. aimed at expanding resources, labor, and prestige, reinforcing the strat'n of society and ctrlized political authority

    goal was the taking of captive
    Maya warfare
  65. most notable characteristic of the EC?
    emergence of independent states across the lowlands
  66. most successful of the new EC capitals; prime locations for large populations along major trade routes (2)
    Tikal and Calakmul
  67. largest Classic city of the Peten, and among the largest of all Maya sites; best documented and longest enduring polity capital in the central lowlands; info comes from archaeological evidence and historical texts
  68. earliest dated lowland monument, hallmark of Tikal's status as a capital of an independent polity, AD 292, portrays an ajaw, not sure who, perhaps Foliated Jaguar?
    Stela 29
  69. major Classic city in the vacuum left by El Mirador, became Tikal's greatest rival and Caracol's ally
  70. monument dedicated by Siyaj Chan K'awiil II (second king of expanded Tikal), text provides an account of Tikal's dynastic history until the point he erected it, also justifies his right to rule
    Stela 31
  71. area of importance in Tikal consisting of a maze of multiroom and multistory royal palaces arranged around a series of internal courtyards; housed many members of the ruling dynasty during the Classic
    Central Acropolis
  72. northeastern Peten site, history comes from its few texts, indicate that it was dominated by Tikal during the Early Classic, location controlled a tributary of an important water route for trade to and from the Caribbean; probably eliminated by Calakmul
    Rio Azul, Guatemala
  73. First known king of Tikal, arch. evidence points to military conquest
    K'inich Yax K'uk Mo'
  74. Source of Copan's dynastic history during the Early Classic, monument depicting its sixteen kings around its four sides, begins with founder K'inich Yax K'uk Mo', text reveals dates of the dynastic founding events
    Altar Q
  75. Base of the Copan Acropolic construction sequence, structure in talud-tablero style, multiroomed, may have been K'inich Yax K'uk Mo's residence
    Hunal Structure
Card Set