ARH 347K

  1. Changes from Late Preceramic to Initial Period
    1.Irrigation agriculture:

    • -increased food production
    • -upper valley settlements

    • -surplus for corporate labor projects

    • 2.Increased trade: coast and highlands

    • -luxury and prestige items
    • -subsistence diversity

    • 3.Architectural design
    • -no more shicra construction
    • -conical adobe construction
    • -pilasters and engaged columns

    • -masonry ashlar construction
    • -U-shape design

    • -North-east orientation common
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    Cerro Sechin (2200-1300 BCE)

    Adobe construction and stone carved facade of ritual battle/procession/wartime commemoration
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    Sechin Alto, Casma Valley (1400-1000 BCE)

    • •Focus on large square plazas (contrasted to Caral)
    • •Built into the ground, not up
  4. Sechin Complex architecture
    transition from conical adobe construction to stone remodeling
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    La Florida, Rimac Valley
  6. U-Shape Architecture (William Isbell)
    •parallel arms express opposing yet complementary forces within society and cosmos; the central building represents the synthesis of these opposing forces
  7. U-Shape Architecture (Richard Berger)
    “designed to focus and influence supernatural power for the benefit of the community.”
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    Caballo Muerto, Moche Valley (1800-1300 BCE)

    • •Central figure in high relief
    • •Would have been heavily painted

  9. Cupisnique ceramics
    • •Felines very prominent figures
    • •Class cupisnique the most widely used because we have the most of them
  10. Modeled figures in "Tembladera"-style, Jequetepeque Valley
    zoomorphic, anthropomorphic, phytomorphic
  11. Incised designs in "Tembladera"-style, Jequetepeque Valley
    Geometric/abstract, figural elements
  12. Middle Cupisnique
  13. Late Cupisnique "Coastal Chavin" debate
    "Chavin" and "Chongoyape"
  14. Prominent MOTIFS in Cupisnique ceramics
    Animals, birds, marine, plants
  15. Prominent Visual THEMES
    Feline-cactus, Dual-eye motif, dual shells, captive victims, seated figures, contortionist
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    Motif and theme
    Dual eye motif in Cupisnique ceramics

    Shows transition from human form to female form
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    Dual-shells motif in Cupisnique ceramics
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    Motif and theme?
    Feline-cactus motif in Cupisnique ceramics

    • •San Pedro cactus used in curing ceremonies
    • •With this in the iconography and with the feline could mean something that was practiced in ancient times

    • •Occur on mountainsides so associated with rainfall, abundance, etc. as contrasted to the very dry coast
    • •Prominent in highlands

    •Associated with certain ecological zone higher up than the coast

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    Captive Victim motif in Cupisnique ceramics
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    Seated Figure motif in Cupisnique ceramics
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    Spider Decapitator motif in Cupisnique ceramics

    •Most highly visual elements are stone bowls and stone vases

    •All have fairly consistent design

    •Spider and human elements

    Dual form
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    Spider Chelicerae motif in Cupisnique ceramics
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    Cupisnique stone vase

    Decapitator figure

    Spider chelicerae--avian beak: application like masks to front of fanged face
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    Cupisnique net design with severed heads and feline

    •Netted heads with the feline

    •Taking feline from cactus theme and crossing it with the netted heads

    •Feline serves many different functions
  25. Cupisnique Iconography (3)
    • •Capture: net design, ropes (neck, hands), captive figures
    • •Decapitation: Supernatural decapitators, isolated heads, slit throats
    • •Symbolic dyads: Spondylus – Strombus, Dual eye forms
  26. Initial Period-Sechin Complex dates and details
    • 2200-1200 BCE: Cerro Sechín
    • •stone façade: 1500 BCE, processing figures

    • 1400-1000 BCE: Sechín Alto:
    • •U-shaped architecture, mid-agricultural fields
  27. Initial Period-Middle Cupisnique dates and details
    • 1200-900 BCE: Caballo Muerto
    • •feline clay sculpture, colonnade facade, sunken square plazas

    1200-900 BCE

    –Stone vessels (Decapitators), Stirrup spout bottles (Feline-cactus theme, Symbolic dyads: shells, eyes)
  28. Spider theme found in (3)
    Cupisnique, post-Sechin Complex, Garagay
  29. Motif vs. Theme
    • Motif: a repeated visual design or image
    • Theme: an idea, message or implied concept in a work(s) of art
    • -identifiable by a repeated set of visual motifs that comprise an integrated or reticular visual program (Ex: spider, net design [web], isolated heads = capture and sacrifice)
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    Pacopampa (1200-200 BCE)

    • Stone architecture, stone-lined canals
    • Emphasis on central, sunken plazas
    • Use of internal/subterranean stone-lined canals
    • Three-terrace style architecture
    • Stone columns
    • Circular plaza built into the architecture
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    Pacopampa (Early Horizon): feline-avian-serpent

    Motifs: feline mortar, avian beak, serpent eyes, rope element, hexagonal net design, serpent pestle
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    Kuntur Wasi Monolith

    Dual-eye motif: quadrangular eye (right) vs. serpent eye (left)
  33. Red cinnabar
    mercury ore (vermillion)
  34. Pututo
    Strombus shell trumpets
  35. Repoussé
    a metalworking technique in which a malleable metal is ornamented or shaped by hammering from the reverse side
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    lacking a lower jaw (Kuntur Wasi)
  37. Formative Period: Northern Andes-Continuities from Cupisnique into highlands
    • Symbolic dyads: shells, eye forms
    • Colonnaded entranceways
    • Net designs and isolated heads
  38. Formative Period: Northern Andes-New features in highlands
    • High status burials in site center
    • Stone-lined canal system
  39. Quebrada
    Dry ravine
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    Cumbemayo (meaning)
    • cumbe [cumpi]=fine (thread)
    • mayo [mayu]=river
  41. Petroglyph
    image or design carved into stone
  42. Continental Divide
    • •Where the river tributaries from the highlands divide between those heading west toward the Pacific Ocean and those heading east toward the Amazon Basin
    • •The Cumbemayo Canal takes water from the Pacific Ocean drainage and directs it over the Continental Divide into the Cajamarca Basin
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    Kuntur Wasi-House of Condor

    Stone-lined canals: Begin in highland centers, exceed needs for site drainage, direct from West to East, emerge or progress down from highest (third) terrace

    Stone-lined canals possible symbolic function: Physical control of water by site center, acoustics of rushing water focus attention, monument as source of group abundance
Card Set
ARH 347K
Midterm: Sechin Complex to Kuntur Wasi