ARH 347K

  1. Art
    Art is a primarily visual medium that serves to express an idea or evoke a response beyond the practical or functional ends.
  2. History
    Broad: Past events

    Narrow: Written record of past events
  3. Three Levels of Analysis


  4. Pre-Iconography=
  5. Iconography=
  6. Iconology=
  7. Semiotics
    Study of signs
  8. Establishing context in Art (Visual Corpus)
    • Technological
    • Stylistic
    • Iconographic
  9. Establishing context in Archaeology
    • Stratigraphic
    • Spatial Distribution
    • Radiocarbon dating
  10. Establishing context in Anthropology (Four-fold)
    • Social/Cultural (Ethnography, ethnohistory, cultural ecology)
    • Linguistic
    • Physical (Biological, cognitive)
    • [Archaeology]
  11. Renascence (Panofsky)
    continued reuse of visual forms and their meanings
  12. Disjunction (Panofsky)
    the adoption of preceding forms into contemporary setting; or, conversely, the application of contemporary meaning onto older forms. (1960)
  13. Renascence (Kubler)
    “Continuous form does not predicate continuous meaning, nor does continuity of form or of meaning necessarily imply continuity of culture.’ (1975)
  14. Disjunction (Kubler)
    For the ancient Americas:“The idea of disjunction... makes every ethnological analogy questionable.”
  15. Francisco Pizarro (1475-1541)
    • •Came over on a number of expeditions
    • •Went to Panama, which made it a center of trade
    • •Invited to explore Peru
    • •Goes to Tumbes first
    • •Brought smallpox with him to Peru, which infects the Inca ruler Huayna Capac
    • -Establishes San Miguel de Piura
    • -Arrives in Cajamarca November 15, 1532
    • -Captures Cuzco 1533; Manco Inca to throne
    • -Establishes Lima 1535
  16. Manila Galleons
    trade routes from Phillipines
  17. Coricancha
    "Golden Enclosure"

    • Temple of the Sun--Church of Santo Domingo
    • Spanish placed cathedrals on top of temples
  18. Quinto Real
    Royal Fifth

    taxation of 1/5 of all wealth from Peru to Spanish crown
  19. Francisco Pizarro established.... and conquered....
    Establishes Tumbes, Piura, Trujillo, and Lima

    Conquers Quito,Cajamarca, and Cuzco
  20. Spanish Conquest of Peru
  21. Huaca
    Sacred rock, mountain, site, or object
  22. 1500s-1600s
    Spanish chroniclers

    Looting of Ancient sites
  23. 1700s
    Extirpation of Idolatry

    Final Inca rebellion
  24. 1800s
    Independence from Spain

    First archaeological projects
  25. 1900s
    Agrarian reforms

    Andean studies
  26. Stratigraphy
    study of the composition and superposition of geological or cultural strata
  27. Horizon style
    INCA Urpu/Aryballos

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    Horizon style-coastal
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    Horizon style-highlands
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    Horizon style-northeast
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  32. Paleo-Indian Period (Lithic) years
    10000-3000 BCE
  33. Pre-Ceramic years and areas
    3000-2000 BCE

    Kotosh Religious Traditions (highlands) and Norte-Chico Complex (coast)
  34. Initial Period (Early-Middle Formative) years and areas
    • 2000-900 BCE
    • Cupisnique (North) and Sechin Complex (coast)
  35. Early Horizon (Late Formative) years and area
    • 900-200 BCE
    • Chavin de Huantar (highlands)
  36. Early Intermediate Period years and areas
    200-600 CE

    Moche (North) and Nasca (south coast)
  37. Middle Horizon years and areas
    • 600-1000 CE
    • Wari (highlands) and Tiwanaku (highlands)
  38. Late Intermediate period and areas
    • 1000-1476 CE
    • Chimu (North) and Ica (South) and Pachacamac (central coast)
  39. Late Horizon years and area
    • 1476-1532 CE
    • Inca Empire (highlands)
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    What period and area?
    Early Horizon; Chavin de Huantar (highlands)
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    What period and area?
    Early Intermediate Period; Moche (north) and Nazca (south)
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    What period and area?
    Initial Period; Cupisnique (north)
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    What period and area?
    Late Horizon; Inca empire (highlands)
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    What period and area?
    Late Intermediate Period; Chimu (north) and Ica (south)
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    What period and area?
    Middle Horizon; Wari (highlands) and Tiwanaku
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    What period?
  47. Northern Andes cultures
    • Cupisnique
    • Chavín de Huántar
    • Moche
    • Lambayeque/Sican
    • Chimu: Chimor Kingdom
  48. Southern Andes cultures
    • Paracas
    • Nasca
    • Tiwanaku
    • Wari
    • Inca
  49. Cultures not addressed
    • Cajamarca
    • Recuay
    • Chachapoyas
    • Ica
    • Ichma
    • Lima
    • etc.
  50. Clovis Culture
    11500-10500 BCE

    Big game hunters
  51. Folsom culture
    10500-9000 BP

    "Bison kill sites"
  52. Monte Verde, Chile
    • 12,750 BCE
    • Pre-Clovis
    • 12 rooms community
    • Preserved in peat
  53. Three-Wave Migration Theory
    • Linguistic: glotochronology
    • mtDNA haplogroups
    • Dental morphology
  54. Pre-Columbian Andes
    • Lack of wheel
    • Textile production
    • Binary systems: dual moeity structure, symbolic dualities
  55. Pre-Columbian Andes: Coastal desert
    Peanut, maize (corn)
  56. Pre-Columbian Andes: River valleys
    Manioc (yuca)
  57. Pre-Columbian Andes: Mountains
    Quinoa and potato
  58. Pre-Columbian Andes: Ceja de Selva
  59. Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilizations (MFAC)
    -Marine resources along the coast, supplemented by incipient agriculture, prompted a ‘neolithic revolution’ in the settlement and cultural development of western South America.
  60. Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilizations supports

    Population growth

    Increase social complexity

    Monumental architecture
  61. Late Preceramic=
    Cotton preceramic
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    Huaca de los Idolos, Aspero (2900-2500 BCE)
  63. Huaca de los Idolos, Aspero (2900-2500 BCE)
    • -Artificial mound
    • -Fieldstone construction: shicra
    • -Clay plastered walls
    • -Rooms with wall niches
    • -Remodeling: rooms filled
    • -No domestic refuse
    • -Graded access
  64. Corporate Labor
    • A group works together for the construction of a local huaca for the benefit of the community
    • - Failure to contribute results in social sanctions
  65. Shicra
    loose mesh bags of crushed sedge or cattail with stone fill; only public architecture use
  66. Huaca, as a sacred site center...
    • -Fosters sense of community identity
    • -Creates a symbolic landscape
    • -Provides central focus for community and ritual
  67. Why define and discuss RITUAL ARCHITECTURE? (Moore 1995)
    • •“The individual is seldom visible in the archaeological record, and environmental conditions rarely preserve the material evidence of unrepeated ritual actions.”
    • •“Ritual spaces are formally defined because they communicate basic information about the relations between members of society and between society and the cosmos.”
  68. Five variable to distinguish types of ritual architecture
    1) permanence-perishable or durable materials; well or poorly constructed

    2) scale-overall and relative size of a structure

    3) centrality-relative location of structure (center or periphery)

    4) ubiquity-Relative distribution, occurrence of structure type

    5) visibility-Relative publicness of structure (visibility and access)
  69. Caral
    2600-2000 BCE

    • •Reciprocal exchange between coast fishermen and farmers
    • •Use of circular plaza

    •May have directed a procession in and around the use of the flutes

    •Monkey and avian forms widely used on flutes
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    Caral: Templo de Anfiteatro
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    Caral: Templo Mayor
  72. El Paraiso
    2200-1900 BCE

    • Room 1: central fire pit
    • Unit II: avian feather, bird remains
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    El Paraiso (2200-1900 BCE)
  74. Pre-Ceramic trends in Architecture
    • -Circular Plazas
    • -Fire pits
    • -Fieldstone construction
  75. Pre-Ceramic trends in Materials
    • -Cotton (nets and textiles)
    • -Bone
    • -Shell
    • -Gourd (containers and floats)
  76. Pre-Ceramic trends in Iconography
    • -Double-headed animals
    • -Stylized anthropomorphs
  77. Pre-Ceramic Highlands Kotosh religion traditions
    Rainfall agriculture (potatoes, oca, quinoa)

    Hunting (deer, vicuña, guañaco)

    Domesticated animals (guinea pig, llama, alpaca)
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    Kotosh (2400-2000 BCE)
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    Kotosh: Temple of Crossed Hands

    Symbolic dualities-male (fig 1) and female (fig 3)
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    Describe this KRT
    • Small enclosed chambers that generally contain:
    • 1) a central firepit, 2) split-level floor, and 3) subfloor flue(s).
    • Their similar design across site centers implies their use in similar ritual practices or religious beliefs.
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    La Galgada (2700-1500 BCE)

    KRT units
  82. "Temple Entombment" (KRT)
    • -the careful filling in of the architectural chamber units in order to build a new structure on top;
    • - it provides for increasing mound elevation and site prominence
  83. Cache
    a hiding place especially for concealing and preserving provisions or implements
  84. Evidence of trade in Preceramic Highlands
    -Obsidian: from south highlands

    - Tropical marine shells: from Ecuador

    - Monkeys and Birds: forest regions?
  85. Richard Burger: Three elements for the economic foundations of Late Preceramic Cultures:
    •1- Intensive utilization of marine resources

    •2- Floodplain Agriculture (irrigation)

    •3- Long-Distance Trade

    •[*Organized cooperation: inter-valley exchange, constructions]
  86. Chiefdom
    a ranked society with population centers that coordinate its religious, social, and economic activities. A chiefdom is usually larger in size and population than an egalitarian society, (a band or a tribe), but it is smaller, less stratified, less centrally organized than a state (Service 1962).
  87. "Group-oriented" chiefdom
    minimal evidence of accumulated individual wealth but clear indications of communal or corporate activities.
  88. "Individualizing" chiefdom
    evidence of marked differences in personal possessions and symbols of prestige, which greatly outweigh expressions of communal authority (burial treatment, presence of luxury trade items, etc).
Card Set
ARH 347K
Midterm: Intro to Preceramic Highlands