1. What is a joint?
    Joint, articulation and arthrosis refer to point of union b/w two or more rigid components
  2. Joint classification by structure
    • Fibrous: fibrous tissue
    • cartilagenous: Hyalin or fibrous
    • Synovial:articular cavity w/ synovial fluid
  3. Joint classification by movement
    • synarthrosis: immobile
    • Amphiarthrosis: slightly movable
    • Diarthrosis: movable joints
  4. Fibrous Joints
    • -synarthrosis in which neighboring bones joined together by dense irregular CT
    • Eg:
    • sutures
    • syndesmoses: interosseous membrane (found b/w paired long bones of forearm and leg)
    • Gomphosis: teeth anchored in bone
  5. Cartilaginous joints
    • -synarthrosis or amphiarthrosis where adjacent bones are held together by solid CT mass composed of:
    • synchondrosis: hyaline cartilage (eg epiphyseal plates of long bones, sternocoastal joints)
    • Symphysis: fibrocartilage (discs, pubic symphysis)
  6. Synovial Joints
    • -movable
    • -all synovial joints are diarthrosis
    • -joint capsule surrounding lubricated synovial cavity which connect articualting bones
  7. Bursae
    fluid filled sac like structures to reduce friction b/w adjacent tissues
  8. Joints of the body
    • -shoulder joint
    • -elbow joint
    • -hip joint
    • -knee joint
    • -ankle joint
  9. Temperomandibular joint
    • -formed from condylar process, mandibular fossa and articular tubercle
    • Antomical Components: articualar disk,
    • articular capsule
    • lateral ligament
    • sphenomandibular ligament
    • Moevments:elevation/depression
    • protraction/retraction
  10. Shoulder Joint: Ball and Socket joint
    • -formed from head of humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula
    • Anatomical components: aricular cartialge
    • coracohumeral, glenohumeral & transverse humeral ligaments
    • glenoid labrum
    • Bursae
    • Movements: flexion/extension
    • adduction/abduction
    • circumduction
  11. Elbow Joint
    • -formed from humeral trochlea and capitulum, trochlear notch fo ulna and head of radius
    • Anatomical Components:articular capsule
    • ulnar and radial collateral ligaments
    • Movements: flexion/ extension
  12. Hip Joint: Ball and Socket joint
    • -formed by head of femur and accetabulum of hip
    • Anatomical Components:Aricular Capsule
    • ileofemoral, pubofemoral, ischiofemoral, intracapsular and transverse ligaments
    • acetbular labrum
    • Movements: flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, circumduction, lateral/medial roatation
  13. Knee Joint
    • -formed byfemoral and tibial condyle and patella
    • Anatomical Components:articular capsule
    • medial and lateral patellar retinacula
    • several ligaments (7), menisci (2), bursae (3)
    • Movements: flexion/extension, slight medial/lateral rotation
  14. Ankle Joint
    • -fored from articulations among thelateral and medial malleoli, and the talus.
    • Anatomical Components: articular capsule
    • deltoid and lateral ligaments
    • Movements: dorsiflexion/ plantar flexion
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