1. memory
    an active system that recieves information from the senses, puts that information into a usable form and organizes it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage
  2. thinking (cognition)
    mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing & attempting to understand information & communicating information to others.
  3. concepts
    ideas that represent a class or catagory of objects, events or activities
  4. problem solving
    process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking & behaving in certain ways
  5. trial & error
    problem solving method in which one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found
  6. algorithms
    very specific, step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems
  7. heuristic
    an educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem. Also known as "rule of thumb"
  8. convergent thinking
    thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic
  9. divergernt thinking
    type of thinking in which a person starts from one point & comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point
  10. symantics
    the rules for determining the meaning of words & sentences
  11. phonemes
    the basic units of sound in language
  12. morphemes
    the smallest units of meaning within a language
  13. syntax
    the system of rules for combingin words & phrases to form grammatically correct sentences
  14. linguistic relativity hypothesis
    the theory that thought processes & concepts are controlled by language
  15. grammer
    the system of rules governing the structure & use of language
  16. intellegience
    the ability to learn from ones experience, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems
  17. reliability
    the tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time it is given to the same people
  18. validity
    the degree to which a test actually measures what its suppose to measure
  19. properly normed
    a distribution in which the scores are the most frequent around the mean, or average and becomes less and less frequent the further from the mean they occur
  20. Wechsler scales
    series of tests designed for specific age groups. They each have VERBAL nad PERFORMANCE skill (most accurate) (helps diagnose peoblems in children)
  21. standardization of tests
    the process of giving the test to a large group of people that represents the kind of people for whom the test was designed
  22. bell curve
    alternate name for the normal curve which is said to be shaped like a bell
  23. developmentally delayed (mentally retarded)
    that their behavior & cognitive skills exist at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same chronological age
  24. Very superior IQ's (gifted)
    about 2% of the population falling on the upper end of the normal curve & typically possessing an IQ of 130 or above
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