1. Why did Radical and Moderate Republicans form an alliance against President Johnson?
    President Johnson vetoed Freedman Bureau Bill and Civil Rights Act of 1866
  2. The Constitutional Amendment that was intended to provide protection for black voters
    15th Amendments
  3. Why was the election of 1876 unusual?
    Hayes was decided a by process other than the electoral college or House of Representatives
  4. The 13th Amendment..
    Abolished Slavery
  5. Under President Johnson's reconstruction policies, what happened by the end of 1865?
    Former Confederate officials and generals were elected to serve in Congress
  6. Freedman's Bureau
    Designed to aid the former slaves and war refugees to adjust to life after Civil War
  7. Carpetbaggers
    Former Union soldiers who hoped to buy land, open factories, build railroads, or enjoy warmer climate in South
  8. Why was President Johnson impeached?
    Tried to fire Sec. of War Edwind Staton in violation of Tenure of Office Act
  9. The intention of the 14th Amendment
    to protect the citizenship of males
  10. Why did black suffrage divide the women's rights movement?
    Some advocates of women's rights refused to support black suffrage without similar guarentees of women's suffrage
  11. Purpose of the Enforcement Acts
    Attempt to curve vigilante violence and protect black voters
  12. "Black Codes"
    Laws passed by Southern state legislatures to restrict freedom of blacks
  13. The pillar of authority in the southern black community after the Civil War
    Black ministers
  14. Scalawags
    White Southerners who supported Republicans
  15. The role of blacks in the Southern governments established under Congressional Reconstruction
    No black governors were elected and only two black Senators
  16. Why was the Klu Klux Klan established after Civil War?
    To pressure the North to end military occupation of South
  17. The 2 main woman's suffrage organizations in the late 19th century
    • -American Women Suffrage Association
    • -National Women's Suffrage Association
  18. "Grantism"
    Represents government corruption
  19. Civil Rights Cases of 1883
    States not individuals were prohibited from discriminating under 14th Amendment
  20. Under the sharecropping system what did poor farmers do?
    Rented land from large land owners in exchange for half the crop
  21. The Slaughterhouse cases of 1873
    THe 14th Amendment only protected the basic rights of national citizenship but not through state citizenship
  22. What was suggested by the election of Ulysses S. Grant in 1868?
    Republicans needed the newly enfranchised Southern freedmen to ensure National victories
  23. Howard, Atlanta, and Fisk Universities and Hampton Institute...
    were prodominately black institutions founded after Civil War
  24. Wounded Knee
    Massacre of Indians in 1890
  25. Dawes Severalty Act 1887
    Underminded tribal bonds by treating Indians as individuals
  26. Desert Land Act
    Allowed Western ranchers to acquire 640 acres for $1.25/acre
  27. Ghost Dance
    A cycle of ritual songs and dance steps designed to bring about destruction of European Americans and the removal of their land
  28. What did the Treaty of Ft. Laramine lead to?
    Establishment of the Great Sioux Reservation in South Dakota
  29. The purpose of General Custer in bringing his troops to the Black Hills of South Dakota
    Drive Indians out
  30. Nat Love and Bose Ikard were..
    Black Cowboys
  31. Homestead Act
    Offered 160 acres of land to any settler who would pay $10 fee and live on land for 5 years and cultivate it
  32. What did Fort Laramine Treaty require?
    Required Northern Plains Indians to move to a reservation in South Dakota.
  33. Frontier communities
    Cooperation among neighbors as a form of insurance on rugid enviroment
  34. What happened to Virginia City, Nevada after the discovery of the Comstock Lode?
    Orgy of speculation and building
  35. Oklahoma and South Dakota
    Where federal government attempted to confine all Plains Indians in later half of the 19th century
  36. Frederick Jackson Turner
    Historian who put forth thesis that the frontier was key to American character
  37. Oklahoma Land rush of 1889
    Thousands of settlers rushed into Oklahoma on April 22, 1889 to claim homesteads
  38. "Buffalo Bill" Cody Wild West Show
    Presented mock battles of Army scouts and Indians and portrayed good and evil
  39. Helen Hunt Jackson
    Rebuked government for constantly breaking treaty with Indians
  40. The reason for violent clashes between cattle ranchers and farmers during the late 19th century
    Farmers used barbed wire to keep roaming livestock from roaming on crops
  41. The Curtis Act 1898
    Dissolved Indian territory and abolished tribal governments
  42. 19th century conservation movement
    Attempted to educate the public on destruction of enviroment
  43. Why was the Interstate Commerce Commission established?
    Investigate and oversee railroad activites
  44. John Muir
    Through his efforts to protect wilderness Yosemite National Park and Sierra Club were founded
  45. Canadian Klondike
    Where gold was discovered which led Settlers to Alaska and established territorial governments
  46. What did mining, cattle ranching, and wheat farming have in common?
    All had boom and bust cycles
  47. The magnetic telegraph
    Used by railroads after Civil War to coordinate their complex flow of railcars
  48. Henry Grady
    Advocated diversifying the economy and expanding industrial production in South
  49. Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    Outlawed monopolies and trusts that fixed prices in restraint of trade
  50. John D. Rockefeller
    Founded Standard Oil
  51. How did James Duke influence American society in the late 19th century?
    Offered trading cards and prizes to target young men to persuade them to smoke
  52. Where did Andrew Carnegie learn many of his successful management methods he used in steel?
    He worked for Pennsylvania Railroad
  53. The effect of industrialization on skilled craftsmen
    Subdividing manufacturer of product into smaller jobs meant individual no longer produced whole product
  54. Late 19th century child labor
    Mainly in coal mines or Cotton mills
  55. Who supported the New South Creed?
    The industrialist who believed the South's natural resources and cheap labor made it a natural site for development
  56. The results of rapid industrial development of the US between 1860 and 900
    Economy dominated by corporations
  57. How were southern cotton mills different from northern cotton mills in the 1880s?
    Southern mills located in countryside rather than cities
  58. What did Karl Marx argue?
    Capitalists would bring own destruction by driving impoverish workers to revolt
  59. Chinese immigrants
    bore the blunt of labor hostilities in 1870s and 1880s
  60. The result of the Haymarket Square bombing in 1886
    Intensified hatred toward labor unions
  61. The Piedmont
    Runs from Va to Al
  62. How did Horatio Alger influence American society?
    By propogading idea of rags to riches
  63. The reason women joined the work force in growing numbers in the late 19th century
    Changes to agriculture brought young farm women into industrial force and immigrant daughter to support families
  64. 2,000 killed and 20,000 injured
    The number ICC says were killed or injured on railroads in 1889.
  65. Charles Sumner
    the leader of the Radical Republicans in the US Senate during Reconstruction
  66. Thaddeus Stevens
    the leader of the Radical Republicans in the House of Representatives during Reconstruction
  67. Andrew Johnson
    became President after Lincoln was assassinated in 1865
  68. Tenure of Office Act 1867
    prohibited the president from removing civil officers without Senate consent
  69. Susan B. Anthony
    one of the leading supporters of women's suffrage after the Civil War
  70. Ulysses S. Grant
    was elected President of the US in 1868
  71. William H. Seward
    Sec. of State who bought Alaska from Russia in 1867
  72. Panic of 1873
    was the start of a severe 5 year financial depression
  73. "Exodusters"
    the name given to African-Americans who moved from the South to Kansas in the 1870s
  74. Sitting Bull
    powerful leader and holy man of the Lakota Sioux
  75. George Armstrong Custer
    7th Calvary commander who was defeated by Cheyenne and Sioux warriors lead by Sitting Bull at the Battle of Little Big Horn in June 1876
  76. Promontory Point, Utah
    where the Union and Pacific railroads met in 1869 to complete the Transcontinental Railroad
  77. Bringham Young
    leader of the Mormons who settled in Utah
  78. Dime Novels
    stories which presented the American West as a place of escape from society and as a stage on which moral conflicts confronting society were played out
  79. Owen Wister
    author of the "Virginian", which portrayed the American cowboy as a hero who was honest, strong, and compassionate
  80. John Wesley Powell
    he urged Congress to establish controls of watersheds, irrigation, and public lands in the West in the 1870s
  81. Yellowstone
    first NationalPark established in 1872
  82. Edmunds-Tucker Act
    dissolved the Mormon Church corporation, limited the church's assets to $50,000, abolished woman's right to vote, and put its property and funds into receivership
  83. J. Pierpont Morgan
    one of the leading investment bankers in the US in the late 19th century
  84. Vertical integration
    means controlling all aspects of manufacturing, from the raw materials to selling the finished product
  85. Alexander Graham Bell
    invented the telephone
  86. William Sylvis
    founded national Labor Union in 1866
  87. Samuel Gompers
    became the leader of the American Federation of Labor in 1886
  88. laissez-faire
    means a "hands-off" attitude
  89. William Graham Sumner
    founded the movement that became known as Social Darwinism
  90. George Westinghouse
    used the idea of alternating current to send high voltage electricity efficently over long distances
  91. Name the 4 main provisions of the 14th Amendment
    • 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States were citizens of the nation and of their states and no state could abridge their rights without due process of law or deny them equal protection of the law.
    • 2. If a state denied suffrage to any of its male citizens, its representation in Congress would be reduced
    • 3. It disqualified from state and national office all prewar officeholders who had supported the Confederacy
    • 4. It repudiated the Confederate debt and upheld the validity of the Federal debt
  92. Name the 6 main features that dominated the world of large scale manufacturing after the Civil War
    • 1. The exploitation of immense coal deposits as a source of cheap energy
    • 2. The rapid spread of technological innovation in communication, transportation, and factory systems.
    • 3. The demand for workers who could be carefully controlled
    • 4. The constant pressure of firms to compete tooth-and-nail by cutting costs and prices, eliminating rivals, and creating monopolies
    • 5. The relentless drop in prices
    • 6. The failure of the money supply to keep pace with productivity which drove up interest rates and restricted credit
  93. Name 5 procedures that the Democrats used to "Redeem" or regain their power in the South during the 1870s
    • 1. They called Constitutional conventions to reverse Republican policies
    • 2. They used the law to ensure a stable black force
    • 3. State courts limited the rights of sharecroppers and tenants
    • 4. They rewrote criminal law
    • 5. Local ordinances curtailed freedmen's everyday activities such as hunting, fishing, gun carrying
  94. Name 5 procedures that the Democrats used to "Redeem" or to regain their power in the Southduring the 1970s
    • 1. They called Constitutional conventions to reverse Republican policies
    • 2. They used the law to ensure a stable black labor force
    • 3. State courts limited the rights of sharecroppers and tenants
    • 4. They rewrote criminal law
    • 5. Local ordinances curtailed freedmen's everyday activities such as hunting, fishing, and gun carrying
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