Which of these is the best definition of theory?
a. A theory is a set of ideas that tentatively bridges the gap between normal and abnormal behaviors.
b. A theory is a set of ideas that relate only to observed behaviors.
c. A theory is a set of ideas that tests abnormality.
d. A theory is a set of ideas that provides a framework for asking questions about and gathering and interpreting information about a phenomenon.
a. A theory is a set of ideas that provides a framework for asking questions about and gathering and interpreting information about a phenomenon.
Albert Ellis’s approach to abnormal behavior is based on a __________ perspective.
The integration of biological, psychological, and social approaches to abnormalityis referred to as the ___________.
a. vulnerability-stress model
b. stress and diathesis model
c. biological-stress model
d. stress-anxiety model
a. vulnerability-stress model
Which is not a biological approach to abnormality?
D. poor physiological responses
The psychoanalytic approach to personality and treatment of psychopathology was developed by _____________.
The force that seeks to gratify wishes in appropriate ways is called the __________.
The physiologist whose study of conditioned responses formed the basis of behavioral psychology was ____________.
C. Ivan Pavlov
The psychologist who is most strongly associated with operant conditioning is ____________.
C. Edward Thorndike
d. B. F. Skinner
When a behavior is eliminated, this process is called ___________.
The idea that humans construct meaning out of their experiences and act in accordance with their interpretations of the world is based on ___________ theory.
Which of the following is not a biological treatment for mental disorders?
B. magnetic resonance imaging
St. John’s Wort was originally thought to be useful in treating which psychological disorder?
Electroconvulsive therapy was originally designed to treat which mental disorder?
Which of these is a Freudian therapeutic technique?
B. free association
Carl Rogers developed _____________.
B. client-centered therapy
The therapist acts out a situation with the client to assess what aspects of the client’s behavior may need changing. This acting scenario is known as ____________.
B. role play
Clients who are encouraged to experience their feared stimuli directly instead of just imagining it are engaging in a(n) ______________.
B. in vivo exposure
______________ focus(es) on challenging individual’s maladaptive ways of thinking and interpreting events.
A. Cognitive therapies
Which of these is not a goal of cognitive therapy?
C. extinguish maladaptive behaviors
Stopping the development of psychopathology before it turns into a full-blown mental disorder is called __________.
D. primary prevention
C. secondary prevention
The steps that researchers use to obtain and evaluate information in a systematic way are called the __________.
D. scientific method
A hypothesis is a/an __________.
C. testable statement
The expectation that there is no relationship between phenomena is called the ___________.
C. null hypothesis
A factor or characteristic that can vary within an individual or between individuals is known as a ____________.
When the conclusions made on the basis of a case study apply to other individuals or groups, this is known as _____________.
Which of the following is not a type of correlational study?
The correlation coefficient is ___________.
D. a statistical method of measuring the relationship between variables
Statistical significance represents ___________.
A. the probability that the results occurred by chance
validity refers to _____________.
A. the extent to which a study’s results can be generalized to phenomena in real life
Which of the following is a major advantage of meta-analysis?
A. removal of investigator bias
The process of gathering information about an individual’s symptoms and background is referred to as ____________.
B. an assessment
When several diagnoses are possible, the clinician evaluates the gathered information to make a ____________.
D. differential diagnosis
The accuracy of a test in assessing what it is intended to measure is called ___________.
A test that indicates consistency in measuring what it is intended to measure is considered to have ____________.
Which of the following is not a neuropsychological test?
A. computerized tomography
Which brain-imaging technique provides information on differences in the activity levels in specific areas of the brains of people with a disorder and people without a disorder?
____________ tests are used to measure a person’s intellectual strengths and weaknesses.
According to critics, which of the following groups do intelligence tests favor?
B. middle-class and upper-class educated European Americans
___________ tests present people with ambiguous stimuli that they must interpret in line with their current concerns and feelings.
A set of symptoms that occurs together is called a(n) ____________.