nursing skills chpt 5

  1. stressors
    changes with the potential to disturb equilibrium
  2. homeostasis
    a relatively stable state of physiologic equilibrium
  3. adaptation
    how an organism responds to change
  4. nuerotransmitters
    chemical messengers sythesized in the nuerons

    common types are serotonin, dopomine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine
  5. serotonin
    stabilizes mood, induces sleep, and regulates temperature
  6. norepinephrine
    hightens arousal and increases energy
  7. substance p
    pain sensation
  8. cortex
    the higher functioning portion of the brain
  9. subcortex
    responsible for regulating and maintaining physiological activities that promote survival
  10. reticular activating system
    the communication link between body and mind
  11. autonomic nervous system
    • peripheral nerves that are largely automatic and beyond voluntary control
    • divided into two parts...
    • sympathetic and parasympathetic
  12. sympathetic system
    fight or flight
  13. parasympathetic
    restores equilibrium after danger is no longer apparent
  14. hormones
    chemicals manufactured in one part of the body whose actions have physiologic effects on target cells elswhere
  15. feedback loop
    • the mechanism for controlling hormone production.
    • can be negative or positive
  16. stress
    the physiologic and behavioral responses to disequilibrium
  17. general adaptation syndrome
    • the collective physiologic processes of the stress response
    • has 3 stages
    • 1. alarm
    • 2. resistance
    • 3. exhaustion
  18. alarm stage
    immediate stress response that releases cortisol, the stress hormone, and primes the body for fight or flight
  19. stage of resistance
    characterized by restoration to normalcy
  20. stage of exhaustion
    when one or more adaptive or resistive mechanisms can no longer protect a person experiencing stressors.
  21. coping mechanisms
    unconcious tactics to defend the psyche
  22. coping strategies
    • stress-reduction activities selected conciously to deal with stress
    • drugs and alcohol as stress relief cause more problems than they fix
  23. stress-related disorders
    diseases that result from prolonged stimulation of the autonomic nervous and endocrine systems
  24. social readjustment rating scale
    a rating scale that is based on the number and significance of social stressors a person has experienced in the last 6 months. it predicts a person's potential for developing a stress-related disorder.
  25. primary prevention
    eliminating the potential for illness before it occurs.
  26. secondary prevention
    screening for risk factors and providing a means for early diagnosis of disease
  27. tertiary prevention
    minimizes the consequences of a disorder through agressive rehabilitation or appropriate management of the disease
  28. stress-reduction techniques
    methods that promote physiologic comfort and emotional well being
  29. endorphins
    natural body chemicals that produce effects similar to those of opiate drugs such as morphine
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nursing skills chpt 5