Organic Chem

  1. What are the products and reactants of ADDITION reactions?
    Molecule (alkene or alkyne) + X2 or HX ----> molecule
  2. What is a hydrogenation reaction?
    • hydrogenation--hydrogen is added
    • Addition reaction
  3. What is halogenation?
    • halogenation--halogen is added
    • Addition reaction
  4. Describe substitution/what are the products and reactants?
    large molecule (alkane or aromatic) + X2 Light------> large molecX + XOther

    Only one atom "switches"
  5. Aromatic
    Have a benzene ring

    Only undergoes substitution, NOT ADDITION
  6. What are the products and reactants of elimination?
    molecule---->alkene/alkyne + little
  7. Elimination: alkyl halides
    react with a strong base (ie. OH-)

    create double bonds

    has a product of H and other (ie. HCl)
  8. Substitution: dehydration
    creates double bonds

    has a product of H2O
  9. Estification (products and reactants)
    alcohol + carboxylic acid---->ester +H2O
  10. How are esters named?
    Alcohol is named like a branch


    ie. ethyl propanoate
  11. how are esters made?
    attaching an alcohol and carboxylic acid together and removing H2O and attaching the two together where the OH and H were taken from
  12. What are the two types of combustion reactions and what do they look like?
    • I) complete
    • C?H? (O2) + O2(g) ------> CO2(g) + H20(g)
    • II) incomplete
    • C?H? (O?) + O2(g) ----> H2O(g) + (CO2(g) + CO(g) + C(s)
  13. Ethane cracking
    • I) Ethane cracking-does not break smaller carbon molecules and does not break bonds
    • Makes ethane into ethene and H2
  14. Alkylation--->isomerisation
    Making isomers by branching
  15. Catalytic reforming
    Straight chain--->aromatic (burns better) + H2
  16. How do you recognize a carboxylic acid?
    It has a carboxyl group

    A carbon double bonded to an oxygen and single bonded to an OH

  17. How do you name carboxylic acids?
    alkaneoic acid

    ie. pentanoic acid
  18. Define organic and state exceptions
    carbon containing molecules

    • exceptions:
    • Na2CO3
    • KCN
    • (NH4)3CO3
    • Oxides of carbon (ie. CO(g) and CO2(g)
  19. How do you name alkanes?
    • 1) longest continuous chain of carbons (parent chain)
    • 2) number the parent chain to give the branches the lowest possible numbers (if it is a tie, the alphabetically lower branch gets the smaller number)
    • 3) name the branch alphabetically
    • #-____yl
    • 4) name the parent chain
    • _____ane
  20. Structural isomers
    same molecular formula but different bonding
  21. Properties of alkanes
    • CnH2n+2 any alkane with no ring
    • no polar
    • volatile
    • the bigger the homologous series the higher the boiling point, due to LDF
  22. Cycloalkanes
    • alkanes that contain a ring
    • each ring removes 2 hydrogen atoms
    • CnH2n
  23. How do you name cycloalkanes
    • 1) the ring is considered the parent chain as long as there are simple branches on it
    • 2) in either case the # of carbons gets the prefix "cyclo"
  24. Alkenes
    • have one or more double bonds
    • every double bond means 2 less H's
    • if there is only DB
  25. How to name alkenes
    • suffix becomes -#-ene
    • *the double bond must be in the parent chain and gets the smallest # possible (of higher priority than branches)
  26. Alkynes
    • have 1 or more triple bonds
    • CnH2n-2 (non cyclic with 1 triple bond)
    • name like alkenes but with the ending ___yne
  27. How to name aromatics
    • in a molecule with simple branching the parent is "benzene"
    • in a molecule with complicated branching the benzene ring becomes a branch and is called "phenyl"
  28. Aliphatic
    not aromatic, does not contain benzene
  29. Saturated
    hydrocarbon has all single bonds
  30. unsaturated
    double of triple bonds
  31. Units of unsaturation
    compare to an alkene: every 2 H's missing=unit of unsaturation=one extra bond OR ring
  32. Cracking
    takes large hydrocarbon and makes it smaller
  33. What is the reactivity of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes?
    • Alkanes-all single bonds, stable with LOW REACTIVITY
    • Alkenes-has one "extra bond" which is less stable, these are SOMEWHAT REACTIVE
    • Alkynes-the "extra bonds" are less stable which means these are QUIET REACTIVE
  34. How to name organic halides
    name like hydrocarbons with the halogen like a branch with suffix -O

    ie. 2,2,3-tribromobutane
  35. How to name alcohols
    • alcohol group is the highest priority
    • number of carbons-#-ol
    • if there is a higher priority group in the molecule the alcohol is named like a branch as a "hydroxy"
  36. What are the different types of alcohols?
    • 1o, primary alcohol
    • 2o, secondary alcohol
    • 3o, tertiary alcohol

    how many carbons the carbon that contains the alcohol is bonded to
  37. Addition polymers
    have a backbone made out of carbons only
  38. Condensation polymers
    heteroatoms in the backbone
  39. Polyester
    many esters
  40. examples of natural polyesters
Card Set
Organic Chem
Different types of reactions, naming