Music Lit Study

  1. Describe Baroque Music as a whole.
    • Massive and Grandios
    • large churches
    • large orchestras
    • tons of ornamentation
    • large choruses
    • overabundance of small, decorative details
    • loved drama (opera, oratorio, contata)
  2. Advances in Science
    • electricity
    • beginnings of the Industrial revolution
  3. What is the industrial revolution in how it relates to music?
    • It brought the rise of the mechant class, but the royal courts and religion was still the principle supporters of music.
    • Cities start the employment of Kapelmeisters (master of the chapel).
  4. What is the patronage system?
    • The employment of a person to write music for one noble person or family.
    • steady pay
    • composer had to please patron
    • involves teaching singers, rehearing instumentalists, and writing music.
  5. Describe a harpsicord.
    • looks like a piano, sounds like plucking instead of striking chords.
    • accompanying part and solo instrument.
    • key pushes up a quill plectrum to pluck a wire string.
    • no control over dynamics.
  6. Describe Basso Continuo.
    • provide a solid harmonic foundation for the melody
    • almost only in Baroque music
    • at least 2 instruments
  7. polarized voices
    top and bottom voices are the most important, inner voices turned to accompaniment
  8. figured bass
    shorthand system to notate chords by placing numbers under bass line
  9. melody for Baroque music
    • two distinct styles:
    • dramatic virtuoistic vocal music
    • mechanical character of instrumental music

    irregular phrase length
  10. harmony
    • stable, diatonic chords support melody
    • played by basso continuo
    • standard chord progressions developed
    • tonality reducced to major and minor keys
  11. rhythm
    regularly repeating rhythms
  12. color
    • musical timbre becomes more varied:
    • exact instruments specified
    • new combos of instruments and voices explored
    • idiomatic (exploits strengths and avoids weaknesses of instruments)
  13. texture
    • chordal, homophonic texure predominates
    • polarized voices
    • basso continuo supports melody above
  14. opera
    a framatic work set to music
  15. libretto
    • little book
    • the text
    • usually basked on story drawn from history and any theology of ancient Greek and Rome
  16. monody
    • to sing alone
    • solo song with single instrumental accompaniment
  17. recitative
    • Italian for "something recited"
    • flexible rhythm to imitate natural speech.
    • purpose is to move plot along
    • rapidly repeated notes, long notes at the end of phrases
    • accompanied by only basso continuo
  18. aria
    • Italian for "song"
    • single idea or emotion - doesn't advance plot
    • longer pieces, shorter texts
    • formal pattern, sections repeated
    • virtuoistic melismas
    • can be an independant musical unit
    • accompanied by basso continuo and part of or all of the orchestra
  19. arioso
    half way between an aria and recitative
  20. orfeo
    • first important opera
    • written by Claudio Monteverdi
  21. chamber contata
    • "something sung" by a soloist, with accompaniment
    • in home or small auditorium
    • unrequisite love, ancient history, or mythology
    • 15-18 minutes
    • contrasting sections of aria and recitative
  22. Barbara Strozzi's music
    • contains descending basso ostinato, common in laments
    • "voglio morire" from lamente segreto
  23. Ballad Opera
    • opera seria
    • spoken play with popular tunes inserted - parodies, comic
    • appealed to middle and lower class
    • poked fun at establishments
    • specifically popular in London
    • John Gay - The Beggar's Opera
  24. Baroque Orchestra
    • idiomatic music
    • usually less than 20 players
    • strings form the core of the ensembles
    • gradually added pairs of woodwinds
    • occasionally trumpet and timpanis
    • sometimes french horns
    • basso continuo still essential
  25. overture
    a prelude to a large work like an opera, oratorio, ballet, etc.
  26. French overture
    • 2 parts:
    • slow duple, triple rhythms
    • fast triple, imitatice, occasionally concludes with slow dotted rhythm
  27. Baroque Sonata
    • "Something sounded"
    • instrumental chamber music
    • 4-6 movements, each similar to a dance
  28. ways to designate a sonata
    • by number of performers [solo(three total) or trio(four total)]
    • by performance location:
    • sonata de camera
    • sonata de chiesa
  29. sonata de camera
    • in residential setting
    • movements bore same characters and name of particular dance
    • allemande, sarabande, gavotte, gigue
  30. sonata de chiesa
    • performed in a church
    • movements designated by tempo
    • largo, adagio, allegro, etc.
  31. Arcangelo Corelli
    • etablished functional harmony
    • frequently used walking bass
  32. concerto
    • a competition between soloist and orchestra
    • solo concerto: one soloist and orchestra
    • concerto grosso: one small group of soloists and orchestra
    • typically three movements: fast, slow, fast
  33. concerto grosso movements
    • three: fast slow fast
    • 1: serious, often ritornello form
    • 2: lyrical and tender, free form
    • 3: often a rustic, dance-like character, ritornello form
  34. ritornello
    • return or refrain
    • all or part of a main theme
    • returns throughout movement
    • concertino inserts virtuoistic passages in between passages of the ritornello
  35. Late Baroque
    • 1600-1750
    • no new genres
  36. melody of late baroque
    • long expansive, irregular phrases
    • sequential development
    • pattern repeated one note higher or lower over and over
  37. rhythmic style of late baroque
    • strong recognizable sense of meter
    • motor rhythm
  38. texture in late baroque
    return of counterpoint
  39. Fugue
    latin for "Flight"
  40. subject
    fugue's main musical idea
  41. exposition
    each part in turn presents the subject for the first time
  42. episode
    freer sections where the subject is not heard in its entirety
  43. pedal point
    a note, usually in the bass, sustained for a period of time while the harmonies change around it
  44. oratorio
    • religious subject
    • not expensive
    • not staged
    • began with overture
    • lengthy
    • vernacular language
  45. terraced dynamics
    shifting the volume or sound suddenly from one level to another
  46. tocatta
    a showy instrumental piece
  47. da capo form
    ABA, ternary form, for an aria
  48. dance suite
    a collection of dances, usually from two to seven in number, all in one key for one group of instruments
Card Set
Music Lit Study
Baroque Music