Psychology Test #2

  1. Black Box Analogy
    • Mind is like a computer:
    • hardware is the computer itself, in humans its the brain.
    • software: programs (ex. word processing), in humans it's how information is registered, interpreted, stored, retrieved and analyzed.
  2. Sensory Register/STM/LTM
    • fleeting, with attention, encoding occurs
    • Storage: Short Term Memory (STM) - limited 6 items (usually 7, give or take 2 items)Working Memory - active short term memory Long Term Memory (LTM) - relatively permanent
    • Retrieval: recognition; recall; cued recall
  3. Operant Conditioning
    • ribbon and mobile task
    • cued recall; kick when ribbon attached
  4. Schema (Scheme or Schemata)
    Sche-mata are cognitive structures: organized patterns of actions or thought that are constructed to organize or interpret our experience egins as a simple action pattern, becomes a pattern of behavior then a behavior sequence. Each elaboration implies a change in structure and can be recognized by a more advanced behavior.
  5. Wisdom
    • Expert Pragmetric Knowledge
    • rich procedural knowledge: stratagies esp. for handeling conflict
    • lifespan contextual knowledge
    • relativism of values and life priorities
    • recognition and management of uncertainity
    • intelligence, personality and cognitive style
  6. Infant IQ
    • Development Quotient (DQ)
    • bayley scales: age 2-30 months
    • correltions with child IQ - low to 0
    • useful for diagnostic purpose
    • best predictors: from measures from information processing. attention, speed of habituation, preference for novelty
  7. Wechsler Scales
    • WPPSI: 3-8 yrs old (2002)
    • WISC-III: 6-16 yrs old (1991)
    • WAIS-III: Adults
    • 3 IQ scored derived:
    • verbal IQ - information similarity, vocab, arithmetic, comprehension
    • performance IQ - picture arrangement, assembly, coding, mazes
    • full scale IQ
  8. HOME/Kaufmann ABC
    • intelligence test today
    • K-ABC - how problems are solved
    • dynamic assessment approach - how quickly learning occurs
    • cognitive assessment system - predicts academic success
  9. INCR group
    • formal opertaions:
    • conjuntion - p and q
    • disjunction - p or q
    • implication - if p then q
    • incompatibility - when nothing happens
  10. implication
    • if p then q, or vice versa
    • ex: If I party then I might make bad on my test. If I study, instead of partying, then I'll make good on my test
  11. Vygotsky
    • emphasized the socioculture context - culture effects how and what we think
    • zone of proximal development (ZPD): accomplishment with guidance, where lessons should be aimed
    • guided participation learning
    • private speech/guides behavior (3 and 4 year olds)
  12. zone of proximal development (ZPD)
    • accomplishment with guidence
    • where lessons should be aimed
  13. conjuntcion
    • p and q
    • ex: I want to party and I want to make an A on my test
  14. disjunction
    • p or q
    • ex: study or party???
  15. Fluid Intelligence
    • decreases in older adults
    • use mind to solve novel problems
    • skills - reasoning, seeing reltionships, inferences
    • free of cultural influence
  16. Crystallized Intelligence
    • increases with age
    • knowledge from experience (school)
    • general information, vocab, ect...
  17. Staford-Binet
    • age graded items
    • older version: concept of mental age (MA) - IQ = MA/CA x 100
    • mondern S-B scale: test norms, IQ score of 100 is average
  18. Mental Retardation
    • below average intellectual functioning - IQ 75
    • limited adaptive behavior - before 18yrs (self care and social skills)
    • belowe age appropiate expectations
    • causes:
    • organic - down syndrome
    • cultural-familial - genes and enviroment
  19. Giftedness
    • High IQ
    • special abilities - math, arts, leadership
    • Renzuli: combo. high IQ, creativity and ask commitment
    • can be identified by 18 months
  20. Creativity
    • ability to produce novel responses
    • divergent thinking - a variety of solutions
    • convergent thinking -focusing on best solution, measured by IQ test
    • ideational fluency
  21. Terman
    • Terman "Termities"
    • remarkable into adulthood
    • well adjusted
    • methods: acceleration, grouping, enrichment
  22. Divergent thinking
    a variety of solutions
  23. convergent thinking
    • focusing on the best solution
    • measured by the IQ test
  24. learning
    a relatively permanent change due to experience
  25. hbituation
    less time observing with each presentation (first indictaion that learning has occurred)
  26. classical conditioning
    • unconditioned stimulus - unconditioned response
    • conditioned stimulus - contioned response
    • learning through association
    • simuli aften become generalized
    • powerful, difficult to associate
  27. operant conditioning
    • trials and error learning
    • first you have to operat on the enviroment, after you have operated you look at consequences, if consequence is rewarding you will be most likely to operate again. If consequence is negative, it will redue probability of operating again in the same mannor
  28. reinforcement
    • positive or negative
    • goal is to increase probability of a particular behavior
  29. punishment
    • reduece probabilty of a particular behavior
    • positive: adding something bad (spanking)
    • negative: take something away (teddy bear)
  30. social learning theory
    • learning from a model
    • most of our socilization comes from our parents
  31. information processing
    • reflects the "cognitive revolution"
    • used computer as model: black box analogy
  32. concrete operations
    • age 7-11
    • can conserve : decentration, reversible thinking, logical thinking (limited to reality)
    • communitivity - A+B=C then B+A=C
    • identity - A-A=0, think and plan ahead. (If I eat my cookie now, then I wont have it for later)
    • composition - [1,2,3,4,5] 1+2=3, 5-4=1, 2+3=5, ect.... (understanding the relationship between relatives)
  33. transitive thinking
    if U is taller than M, and M is taller then S, who is taller U or S?
  34. Formal operations
    • adolescense/puberty
    • logical thinking about ideas - hypothetical and abstract thinking, hypothetical-deductive reasoning
    • decontextual thinking - ability to seperate prior knowledge/belifs from new evidence to the contrary
  35. Reversibility
    • thinking of the outcome before performing the operation.
    • If I touch the hot stove it will burn, knowing the burn comes from touching the hot stove.
Card Set
Psychology Test #2
Test number 2