What are the two pillars of science?
Logic and observation (empiricism)
Example of a variable?
age, race, occupation
Example of an attribute?
young or old, black or white, doctor or lawyer.
List errors in scientific inquiry?
- Inaccurate Observations
- Selective Observation
- Illogical Reasoning
Explain inductive reasoning.
Facts to theory.
Explain deductive reasoning?
Theory to fact
List major aspects of social scientific enterprise.
- Data Collection
- Data Analysis
Define independent variable?
Causes another variable to occur.
Define dependent variable?
Determined by another variable.
Explain idographic explanations?
involved specific details
Explain nomothetic explanations?
simple and to the point.
Define quantitative data?
numerical data, makes observations more explicit and easier to aggregate, compare, and summarize data.
Define qualitative data?
non-numerical data, richer in meaning. only has verbal meaning, no measurement ability.
focuses on theories of societies at large, such as institutions, whole societies, and interations among societies.
deals with social issues of life at the level of the individual or small groups. (dating behavior, arrest rates of certain individuals, domestic violence)
Father of sociology?
Auguste Comte, early positivism
Three stages of Comte's positive philosophy?
Theological, Metaphysical, Social Science
Herbert Spencer, societies who are able to cope and adapt to changes of the present will be the ones that survive.
Karl Marx said that social behavior could best be seen as a process of conflict: The attempt to dominate others and avoid being dominated.
George Simmel, interested in how individuals interacted with each other. Microtheory. Dyads and Triads.
Harold Garfinkle, means methodology of the people.People form their own reality through their actions and interactions.
society viewed as an organism. each component in society has a function.
List elements of social theory?
- Theory (axioms / postulates & propositions)
- Variables (independent & dependent)
abstract tags put on reality and are the beginning point in all scientific endeavors.
attempts to develope plausible explanations of reality.
Axioms or postulates?
fundamental assertions on which a theory is grounded.
Specific conclusions about the relationship among concepts.
specified testable expectation about empirical reality that follows from a more general proposition.
some phenomenon that has been observed.
scientists aspire to organize many facts under rules or laws. They must be truly universal, not merely accidental patterns.
Mental process where fuzzy and imprecise notions are made more specific and precise. A refinement and specification of abstract concepts.
developement of specific research procedures that will result in empirical observations.
Does the measuring insturment really measure what it claims to measure?
Concerns the stability and consistency of measurement. If the study were repeated would the instrument yield stable and uniform measures?
List the 4 types of measurements in social research.
What must a researcher decide in the process of operationalization?
How to best measure a specific variable in their experiment.
Explain Nominal measurements.
Exhaustive and mutually exclusive. (gender, college major, hair color)
Explain ordinal measurements.
can be ranked in order (sue is older than mary)
Explain interval measurements.
equal distance between ranks. (IQ)
Explain ratio measurements.
has all qualities of nominal, ordinal, and interval and is based on true zero point.
Progression of measurement steps?
- 1. conceptualization
- 2. nominal definition
- 3. operationalization definition
- 4. measurements of the real world
List essential steps in resolving causality problems between variables in an experiment.
- 1. relationship
- 2. time sequence
- 3. rival causal factors