Psychology Chapter 3

  1. a stimulation/outside force that is detected by the body
  2. interpretation of a sensation
  3. what are picked by senses?
  4. what are the five senses?
    taste, smell, touch, hear, sight
  5. organ that senses something
    sensory organ
  6. what are sensory nerves?
  7. what is it called when there are limits of the senses?
  8. absolute least or most of a stimulus that can be detected
    absolute threshold
  9. the smallest amount of difference detectable of two things
    difference threshold
  10. senses changes to new conditions
    sensory adaption
  11. what are the components of the eye?
    • -lens
    • -pupil
    • -iris
    • -retina
  12. thin membrane of the eye
  13. what does the lens do?
    • -focus the light
    • -bends the light
    • -bends or stretches to properly refract the light
  14. muscle structure that expands or contracts
  15. lining in the back of the eye
  16. the retina is covered by _________ that burns in the image
  17. what are the two photoreceptors in the eye?
    rods and cones
  18. hold light and dark receptors
  19. color receptors
  20. flips image right side up and sends it to the brain
    optic nerve
  21. where does the retina send the image?
    to the optic nerve
  22. where does the optic nerve connect?
    blind spot
  23. why do old folks need glasses?
    • -retinal deterioation
    • -optic nerve damage
    • -lens damage
  24. what is a problem that is genetic and has to do with the cones
  25. frequency of vibration
  26. the intensity of the waves
  27. what is an example for threshold for pitch
    the dog whistle
  28. what 3 things does the ear contain?
    Ear drum, 3 small bones, Cochlea,
  29. what is the sensory organ of hearing?
    the ear (middle and inner)
  30. like a drum skin, and it's a thin membrane that vibrates waves when you strike it
    ear drum
  31. what are the 3 small bones?
    anvil, hammer, and stirrup
  32. what do the 3 small bones do?
    they vibrate, sending vibration deeper into the ear
  33. what is shaped like a snail shell and is filled with liquid that amplifies sounds
  34. the cochlea is covered w/ them, and they grab the vibrations & convert into an electrical/chemical message
    -and attatched to the auditory nerve
  35. problem with ear structure
    conductive deafness
  36. problem with cochlea (nerve dammage/nueron dammage)
  37. what sensory organ is for the smell sense
  38. what sense capture chemicals that have been emitted
    smell sense
  39. what does the smell nuerons do?
    • -grab on to the chemicals
    • -send them to the olfactory nerve
  40. what carries the smell sensation captured by the nuerons to the brain?
    olfactory nerve
  41. what is heavily co-dependent on smell and the sensory organ is the tongue?
    taste sense
  42. what are the nuerons called that the tongue is covered with?
    taste buds
  43. what are the four tastes?
    sweet, sour, bitter, and salty
  44. what is the sensory organ for skin?
  45. what are the three dedicated purposes for skin?
    pressure, pain, and temperature
  46. what's located in logical places and have very sharp sensors attatched directly to hair?
  47. what is concentrated in certain spots and is a warning system?
  48. suggests that the brain can hold only so many messages? too many messages..some aren't read?
    Gates Theory of Pain
  49. what sensors are everywhere and can adjust?
  50. the sense of balance
    vestibular sense
  51. sense of movement/body control
    kinestitic sense
  52. a personal interpretation of sensation
  53. what does perception do?
    -assign meaning to sensation
  54. what are the rules/guidelines of perception?
    • -closure
    • -foreground perception
    • -proximity
    • -similarity
    • -continuity
    • -common fate
    • -motion
    • -monocular cues
    • -binocular cues
  55. mind will close of gaps in sensations to make sense of them
  56. tendency to look at foreground before background
    -tendency to look in the center
    -is vital to motion detection
  57. tendency to see like items that are close as being the same
  58. we group the items
  59. to prefer smooth and continuous patterns
  60. like items grouped together; we assume they have a common destiny
    motion perception
  61. one eye
    monocular cues
  62. binocular cues
    two eyes
  63. what are the constancies?
    • -shape
    • -color
    • -brightness
    • -presence
    • -size
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Psychology Chapter 3
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