What is analytic instrospection?
To describes one conscious experiences in terms of their elementary constituents, i.e. sensations, simple feelings
Who is William James (1842-1910)?
- Functionalism: what the mind does
- behavior adaptive
Who is John Watson (1878-1958)?
Behaviorism: that which you can see, minalize consious and mind
reduce behavior to its most basic part for study
What is Gestalt psychology?
"the whole is different from the sum of its parts"
What is the Phi Phenomenon?
- apparent movement where there is none
- mind is active, putting together according to rules
What is cognitive psychology?
- mental process underlying behavior
- -mental strategies
- -informational processing
Who is Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
- the unconscious
- most influential
What is humanist psychology?
- self actualization
- free will
- psychological growth
- Hysteria = conversioin disorder
- symtoms look like neurological disorders (motor, sensory problems)
What is Freud approach to psychodynamics?
symptoms are symbolic representations
What problem did Freud faced as a hypnotist?
- meets reistance from patients
- bad hypnotist
Define free association
- follow spontaneous thoughts, images
- say what ever comes to mind no matter how trivial or embarrassing
How did Freud view and used free association
- the thoughts and images are symbolic!
- -must be interpreted!
How was Psychoanalysis born
- Freud used of free association
- -childhood sexual repression
What is the important theory Freud introduced?
- "fantasy" theory
- -"childhood sexual fantasy"
Which one of Freud's theory was not accepted?
Influences on Freud
- Darwin: instincts
- Helmholtz: consciousness in biological! Conservation of energy
- Herbert: Levels of consciousness!
the study of behavior and mental process
What causes behavior
- 1: from explanation to behavior bases on unseen causes to observation
- 2: Localization of function within the nervous system
the belief that behavior is directed by spirits
How did the greek study psychology
systemic study of body
How did Aristotle viewed the brain
brain was bloodless
What was Hippocrates 4 humur
- blood: sanguine
- black bile: melancholic
- yellow bile: choleric
- phleg: phlegmatic
What did Empedocles contribute to psychology?
- personality define by physical property
- Hippocratic oath (medical ethics)
Who is Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
- "cogito ergo sum"
- pull control by body system, hydraulic
How did Descartes compare automation and human
- tubes = nerves
- ballons and springs = muscles and tendon
Descartes contribution to psychology
- 1. Descartes model
- 2. emphasized nerves: sensory - strings, motor - hydraulics
- 3. recognized reflexes
- 4. recognized insticts
- 5. Studies behavior - genetic inheritance
- 6. Splite between philosophy and physiology
- - orgin of rationalism vs empiricism
Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) contribution to psychology
- electrical action of nerves; dismissed Descartes hydraulic theory
- frog legs; bettery test
- electricity - naturally physical
Fritsch and Hitzig contribution to psychology
- map brain
- blue - motor cortex
- white - somatosensory cortex
Frans Joseph Gall contribution to psychology
- Phrenology - study of the brain
- -first to take brain appart by pieces
- Phrenological skull
- -bump, indentation
- "scientific" hand reading
Name 3 modern pseudoscience
- Graphology - personality from handwriting
- Blood typing - personality from blood type
- ESP - extera sensory perception
Wilhelm Wundt contribution to psychology
- first psychology laboratory
- School of thought
- -what shouold psychology be about
- -what should we study? thought, or mind
What can understaning lead to?
predictiona nd control
antecedent events lead to?
- apply to hindsights
- -works great after the facts
- -"Laws of Nature"
- i.e. orderly cause and effect of relationship
Name the 5 steps in scientific approach
- 1. Identify problem and formulate hypothesis
- 2. Do a study - experiment!
- 3. Eval the results and consult prior knowledge
- 4. Tell the world - communicate!
- 5. Replicate
- -Reasons not good enought; empirist
Steps to Identify problem
- observeable and measurable
- Operational: Defining behavior in terms of the precedures used to measure it
- Face Validity: The extent to which the measure captures the intended meaning
- Hypothesis: tentative statement about relaionship between two things
- - testable prediction
- -does not make prediction about supernatural
- -can't prove hypothesis to be true
- Empiricism uses inductive method = find example in the real world
Steps to do a Study
- Studies involve measuing some aspect of a population
- Population: a group of individuals who share certain characteristics
- -Sample: a subset of teh population
- -restults from sample gereralize behavior of population
- -radom sample = equal
- representative sample - subgroup = bias!
Define nervous energy
discharge of tension from satisfy physical needs
Freudian Defense Mechanism
- Repression - ban from consciousness
- Reactions Formation - express opposite desire
- Denial - deny!
- Introjection - incorporates demands of others as if it was your own
- Displacement - transfer energy onto safe oobject
- Projection - atribute "forbidden" impluses to another
Problems with Freud theory
- 1. Theory based on small smaple
- 2. too much wiggle room
- 3. not interested in scientific test of theory
- 4. power of suggestion
- 5. simpler explanation often possible
Ego role in defense
controls voluntary behavior and mobilizes defense
Id role in defense
instinctive, animalistic, agression and sexual impulses
superego role in defense
internalization of ethics codes of conduct
Nervous energy role in defense
physical stuff, conservation of energy
discharge oif tension from satisfying physical needs
ego lets us satisfy our wants in socially acceptable ways
Produce results or distribution different from random chance
- production of sex harmones, typical behavior, different between male and female
- altercation leads to different behavior
Somatic - external world
- sensory input: classical system
- motor ouput: skeletal system (voluntary)
Autonomic - internal world
- sensory input: from the inside body
- motor output: smooth muscle
"fight or flight" response
repair and nurture
What is enteric nervous system?
- "brain in the gut"
- 2 layers, 100 million neurons
How much % of metabolism does the brain account for?
- brain is only 2% of body weight
What are Gilial cells
- nurse cells
- outnumber neurons 10-1
- form myelin sheath around axons
- waste removal
How does neuron fire?
process both electrical and chemical
How did Hodgkins and Huxley demostrate neurons?
- squid "giant axon"
- won Nobel Prize
Do living cells have electrical "polarity"?
- inside is negative relative to outside which is positive
How can electrodes measure change inside vs outside?
- difference is "potential"
- difference is across membrane - "membrane potential"
What cause action potential?
- ions moving
Ion movement is driven by what?
- 1. Diffusion
- 2. Electrostatic forces (like charges repel, opposite attract)
- all or none law
What is hemispheric laterlization?
the left and right side have own capability or specialization
What does the left hemisphere do?
verbal processing, language speech, reading, writing
What does the right hemisphere do?
nonverbal processing such as that require spatial, musical, and visual recognition task
How are the hemisphere control?
- Control opposite side of body
- -left hand controls and communication lies with right hemisphere
Lateralization of vision
- Right visual field - left hemisphere
- left visual field - right hemisphere
What enable the two hemisphere to communicate?
- Enviroment have noticable effect on the brain
- -especially in early life
- -learning can alter/change size and/or structure of the brain and alter neural pathways
The ability of neurons to change in structure and functions
- Neural plasticity
- The brain can often compensate for damage that occure early in life
Why do young children have more neruons than adults?
Can't use neuron efficently yet
How do the brain adjusts to damage or lost of neurons?
- Surviving neuron modify themselves structually or chemically
- -Structually sprouting add dendrites and extending
- -Chemcially increase volume release of neuron transmitters
Otto Lowwi experiment
- Frog heart
- -valgus nerves secretes something chemical
- discover first neuron transmitter
What is know as "vagus stuff"
Neuron transmitter and receptor works liek what?
- lock and key
- -specific transmitors for specific receptors
- both have messengers and receptors
Define primary vs secondary sexual characteristic
- primary: born with
- secondary: apaear at puberty
How did A. Berthod experiment with endocrinology?
- controls other gland
- -connected to the base of hypothalamus
Name the parts of the Hindbrain
- a. pons - bridge
- b. medulla - vegetative function
- c. cerebellum - "little brain" - balance, ballastice movement
Name parts of the Midbrain
- bottom: rectum "roof", super colliculus, inferior colliculs
- bottom: Tegmentum
- Periaquaductal gray 0 pain endorphine
- Substantia nigra - "black substance" high concentraion dopamine
What do sensory input go through?
Name parts of the Firebrain
- Eye - thalamus - primary visual cortex
- Ear - thalamus - primary auditory cortex
- Great cortex - convulsion - more surface area within same space
What's the difference between humans brain and animals brain?
Human brain have more cortex and newer cortex
How are the cortex divided?
- into 4 lobes
- Frontal lobe: planning, think and exacting control movement
- Parietal lobe: percetpion
- Temporal lobe: process auditory
- Occipital lobe: porcess visual
- 1. Single convergence - inside or outside or retina
- 2. Retinal disparity - eyes separted by some distance
- 1. interposition - one thing obsure another; must be far
- 2. size on retina
- 3. perspective
- 4. elevation of "horizon" effect - overhead = closer
- 5. motion parallax - quick = closer, slow = farther
What is perceptual set?
- Surrounding perceptions set the way you reat to stimulus
- ex. background effect on how you perceive
- expectation affect perception
What are schemas?
- Mental models of wolrd "knowledge impose order"
- set you up to expect
- sex differences in perceptual procesing
- cultural differences in perciptual processing
What is prosopagnosia
Can't recognize perceptions meanifully
What do sensory systems have in common?
- Receptor cells
- Reception, Transduction, Coding
Describe receptors cells?
- Sense organs with reptors ells - e.g. eyes with rods and cones
- Receptors detect forms of energy - Adequate stimulus - e.g. light
Described reception, Transduction, and Coding?
- Reception - Stimulus energy absorb
- Transduction - conversion to grraded potential
- Coding - Frequency and Pattern of action potentials
- Subtrheshold - too wealk to detect
- Absolute threshold - level of stimulus you can detect half the time
- Difference threshold - smallest detected in intensity
Less reactive over time if stimulus is unchanging
3 Classes of sensing systems
- a. Exteroreceptors: external world
- b. Proprioreceptors: Limb position and joint angle
- c. Introreceptors: internal world; body temp, b/p
eye is like a camera
3 layers of the eye
- 1. ganglion cells
- 2. bipolar cells
- 3. rod and cones
- spot of focus
- Has cones almost exclusively
- Rod concertrated around fovea