Marketing Research Ch3

  1. What are the types of Marketing Research processes?
    3 types
    • 1. Exploratory
    • 2. Descriptive
    • 3. Causal
  2. Explain Exploratory Research
    Exploratory Research

    • • Conducted to clarify ambiguous situations or discover ideas that may be potential business opportunities.
    • • Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of a problem.

    • >> Does not provide conclusive evidence
    • >> Subsequent research expected

    • Particularly useful in new product development.

    • Exploratory Research and Problem Solving

    >> Symptoms – observable cues that serve as a signal of a problem because they are caused by that problem.
  3. Explain Descriptive Research
    Describes characteristics of objects, people, groups, organizations, or environments.

    • >> Addresses who, what, when, where, why, and how questions.
    • >> Considerable understanding of the nature of the problem exists.
    • >> Does not provide direct evidence of causality.

    Diagnostic analysis

    >> Seeks to diagnose reasons for market outcomes and focuses specifically on the beliefs and feelings consumers have about and toward competing products.
  4. Explain Causal Research
    • Research conducted to identify cause and effect relationships (inferences).

    •Evidence of causality:

    • >> Temporal sequence—the appropriate causal order of events.
    • >> Concomitant variationtwo phenomena vary together.
    • >> Nonspurious association—an absence of alternative plausible explanations.
  5. When to conduct exploratory research?
    Amount of uncertainty: Highly ambiguous

    Key research statement: Research question

    When conducted: Early stage of decision making

    Usual research approach: Unstructured

    • Examples:
    • Our sales are declining for no apparent reason?
    • What kind of products are fast food customers interested in?

    Nature of results: Discovery oriented, productive but still fairly speculative. Often in need of further research.
  6. When to conduct descriptive research?
    Amount of uncertainty: Partially defined

    Key research statement: Research question

    When conducted: Later stages of decision making

    Usual research approach: Structured

    • Examples:
    • What kind of patrons visit our store compared to our competitors?
    • What are the features most important to our customers?

    Nature of results: Can be confirmatory, however more research is often needed. Results can be managerially actionable.
  7. When to use causal research?
    Amount of uncertainty: Clearly defined

    Key research statement: Research hypothesis

    • When conducted: Later stages of decision making
    • Usual research approach: Highly structured

    • Examples:
    • Will consumers purchase more if packaging changed to blue?
    • Which of the two advertising campaigns will be more effective?

    Nature of results: Confirmatory oriented. Fairly conclusive with managerial actionable results often obtained.
  8. What are the stages of the research process?
    6 stages
    1. Defining the research objectives

    2. Planning a research design

    3. Planning a sample

    4. Collecting the data

    5. Analyzing the data

    6. Formulating the conclusions and preparing the report
  9. Flowchart of problem discovery and definition
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  10. Flowchart of planning research design
    Image Upload 4
  11. Flowchart of sampling
    Image Upload 6
  12. Exploratory Research Techniques
    • • Previous Research (Secondary research)
    • >> Literature review

    A directed search of published works, including periodicals and books, that discusses theory and presents empirical results that are relevant to the topic at hand.

    • Pilot Studies (Primary Research)

    • A small-scale research project that collects data from respondents similar to
    • those to be used in the full study.

    >> Pretest

    A small-scale study in which the results are only preliminary and intended only to assist in design of a subsequent study.

    >> Focus Group

    –A small group discussion about some research topic led by a moderator who guides discussion among the participants.
  13. Role of Theory
    • Theory
    • >> A formal, logical explanation of some events that includes predictions of how things relate to one another.

    • Hypothesis
    • >> A formal statement explaining some outcome.

    • Empirical Testing
    • >> Something has been examined against reality using data.
  14. How to plan research design?
    >> A master plan that specifies the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information.

    >> Basic design techniques for descriptive and causal research:

    • a. Surveys
    • b. Experiments
    • c. Secondary data
    • d. Observation
  15. What is sampling?
    Involves any procedure that draws conclusions based on measurements of a portion of the population.
  16. Sampling decisions:
    Who to sample?—target population

    What size should the sample be?

    How to select the sampling units?

    • a. Random sample
    • b. Cluster-sample
  17. How to process and analyse data?
    • Editing
    • >> Involves checking the data collection forms for omissions, legibility, and consistency in classification.

    • Codes
    • >> Rules for interpreting, categorizing, recording, and transferring the data to the data storage media.

    • Data analysis
    • >> The application of reasoning to understand the data that have been gathered.
  18. How to drawing Conclusions and Prepare a Report
    • Steps in communicating the research findings:

    • a. Interpreting the research results
    • b. Describing the implications
    • c. Drawing the appropriate conclusions for managerial decisions

    • Reporting requirements

    • a. Conclusions fulfill the deliverables promised in the research proposal
    • b. Consider the varying abilities of people to understand the research results
    • c. A clearly-written, understandable summary of the research findings
Card Set
Marketing Research Ch3
The Marketing Research Process