What are the types of Marketing Research processes?
- 1. Exploratory
- 2. Descriptive
- 3. Causal
Explain Exploratory Research
- • Conducted to clarify ambiguous situations or discover ideas that may be potential business opportunities.
- • Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of a problem.
- >> Does not provide conclusive evidence
- >> Subsequent research expected
• Particularly useful in new product development
• Exploratory Research and Problem Solving
>> Symptoms – observable cues
that serve as a signal of a problem because they are caused by that problem.
Explain Descriptive Research
• Describes characteristics
of objects, people, groups, organizations, or environments.
- >> Addresses who, what, when, where, why, and how questions.
- >> Considerable understanding of the nature of the problem exists.
- >> Does not provide direct evidence of causality.
• Diagnostic analysis
>> Seeks to diagnose reasons for market outcomes
and focuses specifically on the beliefs and feelings
consumers have about and toward competing products
Explain Causal Research
• Research conducted to identify cause and effect relationships
•Evidence of causality:
- >> Temporal sequence—the appropriate causal order of events.
- >> Concomitant variation—two phenomena vary together.
- >> Nonspurious association—an absence of alternative plausible explanations.
When to conduct exploratory research?
Amount of uncertainty: Highly ambiguous
Key research statement: Research question
When conducted: Early stage
of decision making
Usual research approach: Unstructured
- Our sales are declining for no apparent reason?
- What kind of products are fast food customers interested in?
Nature of results: Discovery oriented, productive but still fairly speculative
. Often in need of further research
When to conduct descriptive research?
Amount of uncertainty: Partially defined
Key research statement: Research question
When conducted: Later stages of decision making
Usual research approach: Structured
- What kind of patrons visit our store compared to our competitors?
- What are the features most important to our customers?
Nature of results: Can be confirmatory
, however more research is often needed
. Results can be managerially actionable.
When to use causal research?
Amount of uncertainty: Clearly defined
Key research statement: Research hypothesis
- When conducted: Later stages of decision making
- Usual research approach: Highly structured
- Will consumers purchase more if packaging changed to blue?
- Which of the two advertising campaigns will be more effective?
Nature of results: Confirmatory oriented
. Fairly conclusive
with managerial actionable results
What are the stages of the research process?
1. Defining the research objectives
2. Planning a research design
3. Planning a sample
4. Collecting the data
5. Analyzing the data
6. Formulating the conclusions and preparing the report
Flowchart of problem discovery and definition
Flowchart of planning research design
Exploratory Research Techniques
- • Previous Research (Secondary research)
- >> Literature review
A directed search of published works, including periodicals and books, that discusses theory and presents empirical results that are relevant to the topic at hand.
• Pilot Studies (Primary Research)
- A small-scale research project that collects data from respondents similar to
- those to be used in the full study.
A small-scale study in which the results are only preliminary and intended only to assist in design of a subsequent study.
>> Focus Group
–A small group discussion about some research topic led by a moderator who guides discussion among the participants.
Role of Theory
- • Theory
- >> A formal, logical explanation of some events that includes predictions of how things relate to one another.
- • Hypothesis
- >> A formal statement explaining some outcome.
- • Empirical Testing
- >> Something has been examined against reality using data.
How to plan research design?
>> A master plan that specifies the methods and procedures
for collecting and analyzing the needed information.
>> Basic design techniques for descriptive and causal research:
- a. Surveys
- b. Experiments
- c. Secondary data
- d. Observation
What is sampling?
Involves any procedure that draws conclusions based on measurements of a portion of the population.
to sample?—target population
should the sample be?
How to select
the sampling units?
- a. Random sample
- b. Cluster-sample
How to process and analyse data?
- • Editing
- >> Involves checking the data collection forms for omissions, legibility, and consistency in classification.
- • Codes
- >> Rules for interpreting, categorizing, recording, and transferring the data to the data storage media.
- • Data analysis
- >> The application of reasoning to understand the data that have been gathered.
How to drawing Conclusions and Prepare a Report
• Steps in communicating the research findings:
- a. Interpreting the research results
- b. Describing the implications
- c. Drawing the appropriate conclusions for managerial decisions
• Reporting requirements
- a. Conclusions fulfill the deliverables promised in the research proposal
- b. Consider the varying abilities of people to understand the research results
- c. A clearly-written, understandable summary of the research findings