consumer behavior vocabs

  1. Cultural values
    Widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable.
  2. Culture
    The complex whole that includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society.
  3. Demographics
    Describe a population in terms of its size, structure, and distribution.
  4. Environment-oriented values
    Prescribe a society's relationship to its economic and technical as well as its physical environment.
  5. Guanxi
    Literally translated as personal connections/relationships on which an individual can draw to secure resources or advantages when doing business as well as in the course of social life.
  6. Instrumental materialism
    The acquisition of things to enable one to do something.
  7. Monochronic time perspective
    Time is seen almost as a physical object: it can be scheduled, wasted, lost, and so forth. Followers of this perspective have a strong orientation toward the present and the short-term future.
  8. Nonverbal communication systems
    The arbitrary meanings a culture assigns actions, events, and things other than words.
  9. Norms
    The boundaries that culture sets on behaviors in specific situations.
  10. Other-oriented values
    Reflect a society's view of the appropriate relationships between individuals and groups within that society.
  11. Personal space
    The nearest others can come to you in various situations without your feeling uncomfortable.
  12. Polychronic time perspective
    People and relationships take priority over schedules, and activities occur at their own pace rather than according to a predetermined timetable. Followers of this perspective have an orientation toward the present and the past.
  13. Power distance
    The degree to which people accept inequality in power, authority, status, and wealth as natural or inherent in society.
  14. Purchasing power parity (PPP)
    Based on the cost in U.S. dollars of a standard market basket of products bought in each country.
  15. Sanctions
    Penalties ranging from mild social disapproval to banishment from the group.
  16. Self-oriented values
    Reflect the objectives and approaches to life that the individual members of society find desirable.
  17. Terminal materialism
    The acquisition of items for the sake of owning the item itself.
  18. Verbal communication systems
    Verbal communication systems necessarily involve exchange of ideas, or opinions, through Languages.
  19. Conceptual model
    A model that does not contain sufficient detail to predict particular behaviors but contains the beliefs about the general nature of a given theory.
  20. Consumer behavior
    The study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these have on the consumer and society.
  21. Consumer cost
    Everything the consumer must surrender in order to receive the benefits of owning/using the product.
  22. Customer satisfaction
    When customers are satisfied with their purchase and the use of the product.
  23. Customer value
    The difference between all the benefits derived from a total product and all the costs of acquiring those benefits.
  24. Distribution
    Having the product available where target customers can buy it.
  25. Injurious consumption
    When individuals or groups make consumption decisions that have negative consequences for their long-run-well-being.
  26. Lifestyle
    How one lives
  27. Lifestyle centers
    Small, convenient, open-air retailing complexes laid out to evoke the small-town shopping districts of previous generations.
  28. Marketing communications
    Advertising, the sales force, public relations, packaging, and any other signal that the firm provides about itself and its products.
  29. Marketing mix
    The product, price, communications, distribution, and services provided to the target market.
  30. Marketing strategy �
    Answers the question: How will we provide superior customer value to our target market?
  31. Market segment
    A portion of a larger market whose needs differ from the larger market.
  32. Need set
    Used to reflect the fact that most products in developed economies satisfy more than one need.
  33. Price
    The amount of money one must pay to obtain the right to use the product.
  34. Product
    Anything a consumer acquires or might acquire to meet a perceived need.
  35. Product position
    An image of the product or brand in the consumer's mind relative to competing products and brands.
  36. Self-concept
    The totality of an individuals thoughts and feelings about him-or herself.
  37. Service
    Auxiliary or peripheral activities that are performed to enhance the primary product or service.
  38. Social marketing
    The application of marketing strategies and tactics to alter or create behaviors that have a positive effect on the targeted individuals or society as a whole.
  39. Target market
    That segment(s) of the larger market on which we will focus our marketing effort.
  40. Total product
    The product features, price, communications, distribution, and services that will provide customers with superior value.
  41. Achievement role
    Based on performance criteria over which the individual has some degree of control.
  42. Ascribed role
    Based on an attribute over which the individual has little or no control.
  43. Cause-related marketing (CRM)
    Marketing that ties a company and its products to an issue or cause with the goal of improving sales or corporate image while providing benefits to the cause.
  44. Cultural values
    Widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable.
  45. Enviropreneurial marketing
    Enviropreneurial marketing is environmentally friendly marketing practices, strategies, and tactics initiated by a firm to achieve a competitive differentiation. Research shows that such a marketing approach leads to increased new-product success and increased market share.
  46. Gender
    Whether a person is biologically male or female.
  47. Gender identity
    Refers to the traits of femininity or masculinity.
  48. Gender role
    The behaviors considered appropriate for males and females in a given society.
  49. Green marketing
    Involves (1) developing products whose production, use, or disposal is less harmful to the environment than the traditional versions of the product; (2) developing products that have a positive impact on the environment; or (3) tying the purchase of a product to an environmental organization or event.
  50. Modern gender orientation
    A marriage where husband and wife share responsibilities.
  51. Sustainability
    Involves methods that are (a) profitable for the farmer, (b) environmentally sound, and (c) socially responsible.
  52. Traditional gender orientation
    A marriage with the husband assuming the responsibility for providing for the family and the wife running the house and taking care of the children.
  53. Voluntary simplicity
    Consumers' efforts to reduce their reliance on consumption and material possessions.
  54. Age cohort
    A group of persons who have experienced a common social, political, historical, and economic environment.
  55. Class to mass
    A movement in which companies are expanding opportunities for less affluent consumers to afford luxury.
  56. Cognitive age
    One's perceived age, a part of one's self-concept.
  57. Cohort analysis
    The process of describing and explaining the attitudes, values, and behaviors of an age group as well as predicting its future attitudes, values, and behaviors.
  58. Conspicuous consumption
    The purchase and use of automobiles, homes, yachts, clothes, and so forth primarily to demonstrate great wealth.
  59. Consumer literacy
    Consumer literacy is defined as "the ability to find and manipulate text and numbers to accomplish consumption-related tasks within a specific market context in which other skills and knowledge are also employed."
  60. Demographics
    Describe a population in terms of its size, distribution, and structure.
  61. Digital Savvy
    Digital Savvy consumers are leading-edge digital users who are early adopters and diffusers of information related to technology in terms of (1) technology ownership, (2) Internet usage, and (3) cell phone feature usage.
  62. Generation
    A group of persons who have experienced a common social, political, historical, and economic environment.
  63. Gerontographics
    A segmentation approach to the mature market that is based on the physical health and mental outlook of older consumers.
  64. Index of Social Position (ISP)
    A two-item index that is well developed and widely used.
  65. Mature market
    A large and growing market with numerous subsegments that is often categorized as 55 years of age and over. It now spans three generations (pre-Depression, Depression, and baby boom).
  66. Multi-item indexes
    Used to measure social class.
  67. Nouveaux riches
    Actively seek out high-status brand and activities; doing the "in" thing on a grand scale is important to this group.
  68. Single-item indexes
    Estimate social status on the basis of a single dimension.
  69. Social class system
    A hierarchical division of a society into relatively distinct and homogeneous groups with respect to attitudes, values, and lifestyles.
  70. Societal rank
    One's position relative to others on one or more dimensions valued by society.
  71. Status crystallization
    The question of whether or not an individual with high status based on one dimension will have high status based on the other dimensions.
  72. Subjective discretionary income (SDI)
    An estimate by the consumer of how much money he or she has available to spend on nonessentials.
  73. Working-class aristocrats
    Dislike the upper-middle class and prefer products and stores positioned at their social-class level.
  74. Acculturation
    The degree to which an immigrant has adapted to his or her new culture.
  75. Born-again Christians
    Characterized by a strong belief in the literal truth of the Bible, a very strong commitment to their religious beliefs, having had a "born-again" experience, and encouraging others to believe in Jesus Christ.
  76. Ethnic subcultures
    Broadly defined as those whose members' unique shared behaviors are based on a common, racial, language, or nationality background.
  77. Event marketing
    Creating or sponsoring an event that has a particular appeal to a market segment.
  78. Hispanic
    A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race.
  79. Regional subcultures
    Arise as a result of climatic conditions, the natural environment and resources, the characteristics of the various immigrant groups that have settled in each region, and significant social and political events.
  80. Religious subcultures
    Different religions that prescribe differing values and behaviors.
  81. Secular society
    A society where the educational system, government, and political process are not controlled by a religious group, and most people's daily behaviors are not guided by strict religious guidelines.
  82. Subculture
    A segment of a larger culture whose members share distinguishing values and patterns of behavior.
Card Set
consumer behavior vocabs