Genetic Mutation

  1. Mutation
    • A change in genetic material
    • Point Mutations
    • Frameshift Mutations

    • Spontaneous
    • Mutagen-induced
    • Mutagens can be chemical or physical
    • Mutagens increase mutation rate by 10-1000X
  2. Point Mutations
    • Single base change
    • Three kinds:
    • A. Silent
    • B. Missense
    • C. Nonsense
  3. A. Silent Mutation
    • Single base change that still codes for the same amino acid
    • Due to redundancy in genetic code
  4. B. Missense Mutation
    • Single base change that alters codon
    • Different amino acid results
    • Can have serious consequences
  5. C. Nonsense Mutation
    Single base change that results in a STOP codon
  6. Frameshift Mutations
    • Change in the reading frame
    • Due to insertion or deletion of a base
  7. Chemical Mutagens
    • Nitrous acid (HNO2)
    • Nucleoside analogs
    • Benzopyrene
    • aflatoxin
  8. Physical Mutagens
    • X rays
    • UV
  9. Genetic Regulation
    • All organisms must regulate their metabolism
    • 2 ways
    • Vary number of enzymes
    • Vary activity of enzymes
  10. Genetic expression
    • Some genes are on all the time: constitutively expressed
    • Others are only expressed when needed
  11. Mechanisms of Genetic Control
    • A. Repression: inhibition of gene expression by a repressor
    • B. Induction: turning on a gene by an inducer
Card Set
Genetic Mutation
Micro Quiz