Looked for new routes to the East Indies (silks, spices) he got funding from Queen Isabella and King Fernando. Oct. 12, 1492 Lands and begins the "discovery/invasion" of America. Harsh methods used to subdue natives, spreads smallpox and flu combined with using them as slaves. Brings some back to Spain.
Fernando the Catholic and Isabella
Married in 1469, uniting their kingsdoms of Aragon and Castille into modern day Spain. By 1492 they complete the reconquista of Spanish lane, expelling Muslims and Jews. Moors final stronghold is Granada. Tradition of military back by fear of different people shapes their world view. Conquistadors continue this tradition, and view Native Americans as people who must convert or by eliminiated due to different faith.
Sacrifices for beliefs. Aztec conquests caused local people to be sympathethic toward Cortes and Spanish. Aztec legends about white gods, disease, and the capture of Montezuma enabled Spanish to overthrow the empire.
In Peru, conquered by Pizarro. Similarly advanced to the Aztecs.
Influx of newly acquired Aztecan and Incan gold and silver into the Spanish economy creates up to 400-500% inflation, causing havoc among European serfdom and other similar land tenure systems.
de Las Casas/"The Black Legend"
Casas was a priest who recognized the destruction of the Natives in America, or "the Black Legend". He suggests bringing in Africans for manual labor instead of the Natives.
Founded in 1607 on a swamp, diseases kill many colonists who are idle younger men. They come to get rich but they refuse to farm for food, leading to the "Starving time". Lacking Indian help combined with Capt. John Smith's laws the colony would have failed.
Smith's Draconian Penalties
Harsh laws set in place by Capt. John Smith upon the founding of Jamestown. They touched areas of DIVINITY, MORALS, and MARTIAL.
The Virginia Company
A Private joint-stock company, allowed by King James I to spread into America. He wanted wealth but no costs, and so he allowed a private venture which would establish a degree of colonial separation from Britain.
House of Burgesses
In 1619, the Virginia Company allowed their shareholders to meet to discuss issues relating to the colony. This is the foundation for House of Burgesses, which would eventually emerge as the governing body of Virginia as a whole. Similar self-governing bodies throughout all British Colonies in America would soon have a similar system of self-government, causing issues for Britain by the Revolution.
A ship carrying twenty Africans who were to be sold as indentured servants. By 1649 there were around 300 Africans in Virginia, and they were not yet treated as slaves.
1675/76, Gov. Berkeley forbids colonists from moving into Native land. Angers many poor landless whites. Bacon who just arrived in America rises as their leader. Berkeley burns Jamestown and attacks Berkeley, but his sudden death halts the revolt. Berkeley opens Native land to ease tension within the community.
The basis for the belief that Blacks are now a lesser people and are set up to be enslaved, while whites are united in the belif that they are the highest race. In America [race > class].
"The want of bread"
Most people who came to America from Britain came due to the large price inflation caused by the 'price revolution', 'enclosure acts', and 'rackrenting'. Convicts are pushed to America while some are pulled by lures of land and better wages.
The beginning of land owners stripping away common land rights in England, one cause for immigration to the American colonies.
Landowners attempt to stretch and raise the rents on land as high as possible due to the new lack of people.
"Virginia was founded on smoke"/"Sugar is made with blood"
Both tobacco and sugar require lots of labor, but with extremely large profits. This provides a justification for the emerging slave trade. All crops of southern North America (rice, tobacco, later cotton) demanded lots of work and therefore resulted in the treatment of slaves as replaceable parts. Northern America had slaves but they were not essential to the work force as they were in the south.
People who couldn't afford passage to America or ere convicted of crimes in other places could work it off through in America. Slavery replaces indentured servants as things get better in Europe.
Hartz and The Liberal Tradition in America
An extremely important book in interpreting American History, Hartz argues that America was founded at the time feudalism collapses in europe and Capitalism emerges. America has no feudal past and does need a social revolution like France or Russia. "Mobility not nobility defines America".
2nd most influential person in the Reformation, believes in doctrine of election and predestination. Only few will be saved and God has already chosen them. Original sin, Puritans follow him.
John Winthrop and "City on the Hill"
Puritans believe they are God's visible saints and must flee England before God destroys it. They create a community in Massachusetts and believe they are showing the world an example ofhow to live. Patriotism, radical Christianity (protestant) start here.
Covenant of Grace
God only saved a small portion of mankind from original sin. Examination of the soul and seeking signs of grace required. One must live Christianity.
Covenant f Works
One could seek salvation through doing good works and living an appearant moral life. God loves mankind and will not punish the majority.
Bay Psalm Book
Puritants placed heavy emphasis on education and established Harvard College in 1636, requiring their children to read the Bible. "In Adam's fall we sinned all"
Challenged Puritan notions that they were God's new chosen people and argued that all faiths should be tolerated. Forced to leave Massachusetts, Williams establishes Rhode Island and religious freedom in America.
Thought Puritans had fallen from the state of grace. Women were not supposed to speak up and challenge men in Puritan society, banished when she argued that she had had a divine revelation.
Challenged the Puritans dominance in Massacusetts. Believe in the "inner light" but are constantly forcibly expelled from Puritan communities for preaching their beliefs.
In 1662. Puritans realize the loss of population who has undergone a religious conversion and desides that their children who are baptized may become members but must not vote.
King Charles II
Stuarts returned to the throne in 1660 and immediately the colonies felt the difference with the Navigation Acts which regulated colonial trade. Charles revoked the charter for Massachusetts in 1684.
Helped the Puritans make money and enrich the colonies. Raw materials and rum would go from the colonies to England who shipped finished products and rum to Africa for slaves which would be shipped to the colonies.
Dominion of New England
Established by charles II who recoked Massachusetts charter and sent Sir Edmond Andros to Govern. Andros scares Puritans byy saying that they have no rights, and their land is stolen without proper seals. Puritans claim they are Englishmen under common Law and not because they are God's chosen. Glorious Revolution (1688/89) ousts King James II and places William and Mary on the throne, enabling Puritans to toss out Andros.
Samuel Parris' slave girl who begins telling fortunes for the afflicted girls and moved on to describing the unseen world including stories about the devil, etc.
Brings many witch trial accusations, resented the loss of status by Puritant ministers. Putnam family supports Parris while the Porter family opposes him.
AP US History (Colonial)
Flashcards for APUSH for the colonial era and start of slavery.