biology ch 50

  1. ecology
    the study of how organisms interact with their environment
  2. four main levels of ecology
    • organisms
    • populations
    • communities
    • ecosystems
  3. organismal ecology
    exporing the morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations that allow individuals to live successfully in a particular area
  4. population
    a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area at the same time
  5. population ecology
    focus on how the numbers of individuals in a population change over time
  6. community
    consists of the species that interacct with each other within a particular area
  7. community ecology
    ask questions about the nature of the interaction between species and the consequences of those interaction
  8. ecosystem
    consists of all the organisms in a particular region along with nonliving components
  9. abiotic
    non living components (air, water, soil)
  10. ecosystem ecology
    study how nutrients and energy move among organisms and between organisms and the surrounding atmosphere and soil or water
  11. conservation biology
    the effort to study, preserve, and restore threatened populations, communities, and ecosystems
  12. biotic
    living components (organism and other species)
  13. productivity
    the total amoung of carbon fixed by photosynthesis per unit area per year
  14. littoral zone
    shallow waters along the shore
  15. limnetic zone
    offshore and comprises water that receives enough light to support photosynthesis
  16. bethnic zone
    made up of the substrate
  17. photic zone
    regions of the littoral, limnetic, and bethnic zones that receive sunlight
  18. aphotic zone
    portions of a lake or pond that do not receive sunlight
  19. thermocline
    a gradient in temperature
  20. wetlands
    • shallow water habitats where the soil is saturated with water for part of the year
    • bogs, marshes, swamps
  21. streams
    • bodies of water that move constantly in one direction
    • oxygen levels tend to be high in fast moving streams
    • cold water holds more oxygen than warm water
  22. estuaries
    • form where rivers meet the ocean
    • freshwater mixes with salt water
    • most productive environment on earth
  23. ocean
    continuous body of salt water and are remarkable uniforn in chemical composition
  24. intertidal zone
    between tides
  25. neritic zone
    extends from intertidal zone to depths of about 200m
  26. continental shelf
    the gently sloping submerged portion of a continental plate
  27. oceanic zone
    the open ocean o deepwater region beyond continental shelf
  28. bethnic zone
    bottom of the ocean
  29. photic zone
    intertidal and sunlit regions of the neritic and oceanic and bethnic zones
  30. aphotic zone
    areas that do not receive sunlight
  31. biomes
    major groupings of plant and animal communities defined by a dominant vegetation type
  32. climate
    the prevailing long term weather conditions found in an area
  33. weather
    consists of the specific short term atmospheric conditions of temperature, moisture, sunlights, and wind
  34. NPP
    net primary productivity o the total amount of carbon that is fixed per year minus the amount of fixed carbon oxidized during cellular respiration
  35. aboveground biomass
    the total mass of living plants
  36. canopy
    the uppermost layer of branches
  37. epiphytes
    plants that grow entirely on other plants
  38. temperate
    pronounced annual fluctutions in temperature
  39. tundra
    biom that lies poleward from the subarctic
  40. permafrost
    perennially frozen state
  41. hadley cell
    a major cycle in global air circulation
  42. biogeography
    the study of how organisms are distributed geographically
  43. range
    geographic distribution of species
  44. dispersal
    the movement of an individual from the place of its birth
Card Set
biology ch 50
biology ch 50