biology ch 53

  1. fitness
    the ability to survive and produce offspring
  2. coevolution
    changes in species interactions lead to long term changes in the characteristics of populations
  3. intraspecific competition
    competition that occurs between members of the same species
  4. interspecific competition
    individuals from different species use the same limiting resources
  5. comsumptive competition
    occurs when individuals consume the same resources
  6. preemptive competition
    exists when one species makes space unavailable to other species
  7. overgrowth competition
    happens when one species grows above another
  8. chemical competition
    takes place when one species produces toxins that negatively affect another species
  9. territorial competition
    arises when a mobile species protects its feeding or breeding territory against other species
  10. encounter competition
    occurs when two species interfere directly for access to specific resources
  11. niche
    the range of resources that the species is able to use or the range of conditions it can tolerate
  12. competitive exclusion principle
    it is not possible for species with the same niche to coexist
  13. asymmetric competition
    one species suffers a much greater fitness decline than the other species does
  14. symmetric competition
    each of the interacting species experiences a roughly equal decrease in fitness
  15. fundamental niche
    combination of resources or areas used or conditions tolerated in the absence of competitors
  16. realized niche
    the portion of resources or areas used or conditions tolerated when competition occurs
  17. niche differentiation
    resource partitioning
  18. character displacement
    change in species traits
  19. mimicry
    when one species closely resembles another species
  20. mullerian mimcry
    when harmful prey species resemble each other
  21. batesian mimicry
    harmless species resemble dangerous species
  22. inducible defenses
    defensive traits that are produced only in response to the presence of a predator
  23. prey have a larger... growth rate
  24. predators play a role in ..... growth of prey populations
    density dependent
  25. meta analysis
    a study of studies
  26. why dont herbivores eat more of the food available on land
    • herbivores could be kept in check by predation or disease
    • plant tissues could offer poor or incomplete nutrition
    • plants could defend themselves against attack
  27. top down control hypothesis
    herbbivore populations are limited by predation and disease
  28. poor nutrition hypothesis
    plants are a poor food source in terms of the nutrients they provide for herbivores - plant tissues have less that 10 percent of the nitrogen found in animal tissues
  29. plant defense hypothesis
    plants defend themselves effectively enough to limit herbivory
  30. communities are a product of
    chance and history and predators
  31. keystone species
    has a much greater impact on the surrounding species than its abundance and total biomass would suggest
  32. disturbance
    any event that removes some individuals or biomass from a community
  33. biomass
    total mass of living organisms
  34. the impact of disturbances is a function of three factors
    • the type of disturbance
    • its frequency
    • its severity
  35. primary succession
    occurs when a disturbance removes the soul and its organisms as well as organisms that live above the surface
  36. secondary succession
    occurs when a disturbance removes some or all of the organisms from an area but leaves the soil intact
  37. early successional communities
    are dominated by species that are short lived and small and that disperse their seeds over long distances
  38. late successional communities
    are dominated by species that tend to be long lived, large, and good competitors for resources such as light and nutrients
  39. successional pathway
    the specific sequence of species that appears over time
  40. weed
    a plant that is adapted for growth in disturbed soils
  41. facilitation
    takes place when the presence of an early arriving species makes conditions more favorable for the arrival of certain later species by providing shade or nutrients
  42. tolerance
    means that existing species do not affect the probability that subsequent species will become established
  43. inhibition
    occurs when the presence of one species inhibits the establishment of another
  44. species richness
    a simple count of how many species are pesent in a given community
  45. species diversity
    a weighted measure that incorporates a species relative abundance as well as its presence or absence
  46. productivity
    the total amount of photosynthesis per unit area per year
  47. intermediate disturbance hypothesis
    regions with a moderate type, frequency, and severity of disturbance should have high species richness and diversity
Card Set
biology ch 53
biology ch 53