biology notes

  1. ecosystem ecology generally focuses on
    • the way that abiotic characteristics impact the living organisms present in that area
    • the cycling of nutrients through the system (carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, hudrogeologic cycle)
  2. community
    a biological community consists of the speciel that interact with each other within a particular area
  3. community ecology focuses on
    the interactions between species and their impact on each other
  4. population
    a group of individuals of the same species that lives in the same area at the same time
  5. population ecology focuses on
    • how the numbers of individuals in a population changes over time due to the interaction of individuals
    • its affected by the total number, density, and distribution of individuals in the population
  6. density
    a measurement of the total number of dindividuals per unit area
  7. distribution
    location of individuals or dispersal of individuals in the space
  8. organism
    a separate living entity comprised of single or multiple cells functioning as a unit
  9. prganismal ecology focuses on
    how individuals interact with their environment by examining the morphological , physiological, and behavioral adaptations that allow individuals to live successfully in a particular area
  10. ecosustem ecology
    the study of ecosystem dynamics such as energy flow among diff types of organisms (producers, consumers, decomposers), biogeochemical cycles, and human impacts
  11. ecosystem
    set of all special and abiotic factors in an area
  12. four components to ecosystems that are linged by a flow of energy
    abiotic factors (non living such as water, nutrients, ions, amoung of sunlight energy)

    primary producers (organisms that synthesize its own food)

    consumers (organisms that eat other organisms)

    decomposers (organisms that obtain energy by feeding on dead remains)
  13. trophic level
    feeding level in an ecosystem
  14. energy flow from one trophic level to another always involves a loss of...
  15. energy is lost as...
    heat during metabolism

    used for maintenance

    dedicated to growth and reproduction

    lost when organism tries to process other organism
  16. NPP
    energy that is invested in new tissue (able to be passed onto another trophic level)
  17. food chains and food webs can describe...
    who eats who in an ecosystem
  18. most food chains/webs are short because
    they rarely can provide enough energy for many species feeding above the secondary consumer level
  19. biochemical cycles
    the abiotic factors in an ecosystem do not remain stagnant in one location

    always moving throughout the ecosystem

    into and out of living organisms

    into the atmosphere

    into the water sources
  20. human impacts on ecosystem
    population is increasing exponentially

    exponentially increasing resources used by that population
  21. community ecology
    a study of the interactions and effect of interactions between species in an area
  22. commensalism

    one gains and other dies or isnt affected
  23. parasitism and predation
    +/- one gains other loses
  24. competition

    both lose
  25. mutualism

    both benefit from interactions
  26. global warming
    increase in average temperature of the earths near surface air and oceans
  27. phosphate pollution
    a condition where there is too much phosphorus in lakes and streams, as a result from poor timing on fertilizer application

    When too much phosphorus enters lakes and streams, it can cause algae blooms. Algae blooms block sunlight from reaching the fish and other aquatic plants, and the aquatic life dies.
  28. acid rain
    precipitation that is unusually acidic. elevated levels of hydrogen ions
  29. ozone hole
    a region of exceptionally depleted ozone in the stratosphere over the Antarctic that happens at the beginning of Southern Hemisphere spring
  30. biological science was founded with the developments of
    the cell theory

    the theory of evolution by natural selection
  31. cell
    a highly organized compartment that has a plasma membrane that contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution
  32. cell theory
    all organisms are made of cells and all cells come from pre existing cells
  33. louis paseurs experiment
    a hypothesis is a proposed explanation

    a prediction is something that can be measured and must be correct if a hypothesis is valid
  34. hypothesis
    an explanation using naturally occurring processes to explain a natural phenomenon
  35. louis pasteur demonstrated that...
    cells arise from cells and not by spontaneous generation
  36. organisms are related by
    common ancestry
  37. in a multicellular organism...
    all the cells present descend from pre existing cells and are connected by common ancestry
  38. darwin and wallace proposed that...
    • all species are related by common ancestry
    • the characteristics of species can be modified from generation to generation
  39. evolution
    a change in the frequency of traits in a population over time
  40. because populations can evolve over time and become more diff from each other...
    eventually they may not be able to exchange genetic material - at this point they are considered diff species
  41. what may explain why evolution can occur
    natural selection
  42. fitness
    the ability of an individual to produce offspring
  43. adaptation
    • a trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment
    • a trait that evolves due to natural selection
  44. population
    a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time
  45. what 2 conditions must be met for natural selection to occur in a population
    • individuals in the population vary in characteristics that are heritable
    • in a particular environment, certain versions of these heritable traits help individuals survive better or reproduce more than other versions
  46. .... acts on individuals but .... is measured in population
    • natural selection
    • evolutionary change
  47. evolution occurs when...
    heritable variation leads to differential success in reproduction
  48. life is unified by...
    • common ancestry
    • posession of cells
    • diversity in overall form and function
  49. theory
    an idea that has been scientifically tested numerous times and has not been found false
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biology notes
biology notes