What are the ANS do?
- Regulates body temperature
- Coordinates cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, and reproductive functions
Routine physiological adjustments to systems are made by the____________ operating at the subconscious level.
What are the major divisions of the ANS?
What can ANS generally do?
- always active
- can activate or inhibit an organ
- releases neurotransmitter
- casuses short term changes
What regions of the brain effect the ANS regulatory activities?
- Hypothalamus (headquarter of autonomic function)
- Limbic system
- cerebral cortex
The ANS, like the somatic nervous system, has ____ and ____neurons.
In the ANS the afferent pathways originate in________ and the efferent pathways connect to _______.
- Visceral Receptors
- Visceral Effector Organs
How does the ANS differ from the SNS?
the arrangement of the neurons connecting the central nervous system to the effector organs
Preganglionic Neurons are what?
Visceral motor neurons in the CNS
What do the Visceral motor neurons?
Send axons to synapse on ganglionic neurons
Visceral efferents from the thoracic and lumbar segments form the __________ of the ANS.
Thoracolumbar (sympathetic) division
The thoracolumbar division is also known as what?
"Fight or Flight" system
What does the Sympathetic Division generally do?
- Stimulates tissue metabolism
- Increase alertness
- Prepares the body to deal with emergencies
Visceral efferents leaving the brain stem and sacral segments from the ____________.
Craniosacral (parasympathetic) division
The craniosacral division is known as what?
"Rest and Repose" system
What does the Craniosacral division generally do?
Conserves energy and promotes sedentary activities.
Neurotransmitter effects are.....
- All preganglionic terminals release Arch and are excitatory
- All postganglionic parasympathetic terminals release ACh and effects may be excitatory or inhibitory
- Most postganglionic sympathetic terminals release norepinephrine (NE) and effect are usually excitatory
What is Dual innervation?
When vital organs (except sweat glands) receive instruction from both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers.
What does the Sympathetic Division consist of?
- Preganglionic neurons between spinal cord segments T1 and L2
- Ganglionic neurons in ganglia near the vertebral column
- Specialized neurons within the adrenal gland
_________ include alpha and beta receptors.
________ are sensitive to epinephrine and unresponsive to noreepinephrine and they may produce either inhibition or excitation.