Pediatric nutrition-exam 2

  1. 6 classes of nutrients
    • carbs
    • proteins
    • fats
    • water
    • vitamins
    • minerals
  2. Carbohydrates
    • most abundant source of energy
    • primary role: provide energy to cells
    • two types- sugars, complex
  3. Proteins
    • must be digested to their component amino acids prior to absorption and utilization by body
    • contain nitrogen in their structure; inefficient as energy source
    • three primary roles- growth and repair of body, regulation of body processes within body and energy
    • building blocks for body structures
  4. Fats
    • provide essential fatty acids
    • help with absorption of vitamins a, d, e, and k
    • provide energy for infants and young children; fuel
    • good- unsaturated fats, bad- saturated and trans fat
  5. Water
    • all systems in body need water
    • transports nutrients in bloodstream and flushes body of wastes
    • maintains proper temperatures
  6. Vitamins
    • water-soluble: all b vitamins and vitamin c, cannot be stored in body, take every day
    • fat-soluble: vitamins a, d, e, k; dissolve in fat and are stored until body needs them
  7. Factors that create challenges to meeting nutritional needs
    • disappearing family meals- eat more veggies, fruits, whole grains, and calcium rich foods when prepared at home
    • eating away from home- larger portions, fewer fruits, veggies, milk, more sodium and fat, soft drinks
    • using convenience foods-high in fat, sugar, and sodium; may lose nutritive properties
  8. Signs of iron deficiency
    • sleepiness
    • irritability
    • difficulty concentrating
    • difficulty maintaining body temp
    • brittle nails
    • sore tongue
    • poor school performance
    • less able to fight infections
  9. Dietary guidelines
    • collaborative effort of DHHS and USDA
    • 5 years
    • addresses needs of people 2 years and older, offering recommendations
    • provide overall lifestyle recommendations to meet nutrition goals and improve health
  10. Dietary reference intakes
    • provide reference values that specify amount of nutrients needed in peoples' diets
    • form basis for all diet recommendations made by health and government authorities
  11. Nutrient claim
    • statements that characterize quantity of a nutrient in food
    • 50% less sodium
    • low in fat and cholesterol
    • high in calcium
    • sugar-free
  12. Health claim
    • statement that characterizes the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food and a disease or health-related condition
    • sodium and hypertension
    • saturated fats and heart disease
    • calcium and osteoporosis
  13. My Pyramid focuses on:
    • variety
    • proportionality
    • moderation
    • activity
  14. Goals of eating
    • provide energy
    • aid in growth and development
    • repair and maintain the body
    • regulate body processes
  15. Foods that protect teeth
    • milk and cheese
    • flouridated water
    • xylitol found in some sugar-free gums
  16. Nutritional factors that increase risk of dental decay
    • frequency of eating and drinking
    • high intake of fruit juices and soft drinks
    • delayed weaning from bottle and access to sippy cups
    • intake of sticky foods that gets stuck in teeth
  17. nutrients for building and repair
    • protein
    • minerals
    • water
  18. nutrients for energy
    • protein
    • carbs
    • fats
  19. nutrients for regulating body processes
    • protein
    • minerals
    • vitamin
    • water
  20. Macronutrients
    • gram amounts
    • water
    • protein
    • carbs
    • fats
  21. micronutrients
    • small amounts
    • vitamins
    • minerals
  22. Importance of water
    • regulates body temp through perspiration
    • transports nutrients and oxygen as component of blood
    • all chemical reactions in body take place in water
    • major constituent of body and body secretions
    • helps remove waste
  23. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
    • minimum amount of energy needed to cary on body processes vital to life
    • based on age and weight
  24. Energy Needs
    • need more energy per unit of body weight than adults due to higher BMR and growth
    • factors that influence child's need
    • rate of growth
    • physical activity
    • body size
    • sex
    • body composition
  25. Energy Balance for children
    • height/weight tables are used
    • body mass index: an index of a person's weight in relation to height; determined by dividing weight by the square of the height
    • *tracking over time is important
    • if overweight-increase exercise rather than restrict food
    • if underweight- increase exercise, frequent feedings, and higher calorie dense foods also high in nutrients
  26. Risk factors for obesity
    • adult morbidity and mortality
    • type 2 diabetes
    • coronary heart disease
    • osteoporosis
  27. Addressing obesity, what to teach children?
    • support wellness
    • offer nutritious meals
    • provide time and space for phys. activity
    • teach about nutrition
    • invite parents to promote wellness at home
    • be good wellness role models
  28. Portion control
    knowing the proper portion sizes for meals and carrying that out. portion sizes are growing rapidly and it is important to teach children the correct portion sizes (portion control).
  29. Teaching children:
    • to eat when hungry
    • portion control
    • to eat like the rainbow
    • don't sneak foods
    • exercise often
    • teach them about well balanced meals (food pyramid)
    • drink water
    • cook with them, modeling
  30. Digestive process
    • mouth
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine (liver, gbladder, pancreas)
    • large intestine
Card Set
Pediatric nutrition-exam 2
possible listing/short answer questions