the quantity of blood pumped per minute.
–Cardiac output (Q) = Stroke volume (SV) x
- Heart rate (HR) (in beats per min)
•Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped during each heartbeat.
SV increases to about 40–50% of maximal capacity, and then plateaus
HR typically increases gradually to maximal levels.
RER - Respiratory Exchange Ratio
the ratio of carbon dioxide produced relative to the amount of oxygen.
- RER = CO2/O2
- At rest, the average RER is 0.75, meaning that the body is burning approximately 85% fat and 15% carbohydrate. When intensity increase more carbs are burned and less fat.
Relative VO2 max
allows comparisons between individuals
expressed in “relative” terms (mL/kg/min)
is used to determine caloric expenditure during specific activities.
•Approximately 5 kcal of energy are burned for every liter of oxygen consumed.
a persons maximal oxygen consumption.
The more oxygen a person can take in, deliver, and utilize, the more work they can perform.
EPOC excess post exercise oxygen consumption
Oxygen consumption slowly declines, but remains elevated above resting level.
- Phosphagen stores are being replenished Remaining lactate is being removed from the blood
- The metabolic rate decreases
Anaerobic threshold (AT)
- is reached when exercise intensity increases above steady-state aerobic metabolism and
- anaerobic production of ATP occurs
Ventilatory Threshold 1&2
- occurs when blood lactate begins to accumulate and the body rids itself of excess CO2 through increased respiration.
- (breathing heavily hard to speak)
- occurs as blood lactate rapidly
- increases with intensity, and represents
- increased hyperventilation past the need
- to rid the body of excess CO2.
(speaking is not an option)