PE 202 Chap 2 - Exercise Physiology

  1. Cardiac Output
    the quantity of blood pumped per minute.

    • –Cardiac output (Q) = Stroke volume (SV) x
    • Heart rate (HR) (in beats per min)

  2. Stroke Volume
    •Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped during each heartbeat.

    SV increases to about 40–50% of maximal capacity, and then plateaus
  3. Heart Rate
    HR typically increases gradually to maximal levels.
  4. RER - Respiratory Exchange Ratio
    the ratio of carbon dioxide produced relative to the amount of oxygen.

    • RER = CO2/O2
    • At rest, the average RER is 0.75, meaning that the body is burning approximately 85% fat and 15% carbohydrate. When intensity increase more carbs are burned and less fat.
  5. Relative VO2 max
    allows comparisons between individuals

    expressed in “relative” terms (mL/kg/min)
  6. Absolute VO2
    is used to determine caloric expenditure during specific activities.

    •Approximately 5 kcal of energy are burned for every liter of oxygen consumed.
  7. VO2max
    a persons maximal oxygen consumption.

    The more oxygen a person can take in, deliver, and utilize, the more work they can perform.
  8. EPOC excess post exercise oxygen consumption
    Oxygen consumption slowly declines, but remains elevated above resting level.

    • Phosphagen stores are being replenished Remaining lactate is being removed from the blood
    • The metabolic rate decreases
  9. Anaerobic threshold (AT)
    • is reached when exercise intensity increases above steady-state aerobic metabolism and
    • anaerobic production of ATP occurs
  10. Ventilatory Threshold 1&2
    • VT1
    • occurs when blood lactate begins to accumulate and the body rids itself of excess CO2 through increased respiration.
    • (breathing heavily hard to speak)

    • VT2
    • occurs as blood lactate rapidly
    • increases with intensity, and represents
    • increased hyperventilation past the need
    • to rid the body of excess CO2.

    (speaking is not an option)
Card Set
PE 202 Chap 2 - Exercise Physiology
ACE's essentials of Exercise Science