Two types of breathing emergencies
- respiratory distress: most common
- respiratory arrest
bluish discoloration of the skin around the mouth or fingertips resulting from a lack of oxygen in the blood
viral infection that causes swelling of the tissues around the vocal cords.
bacterial infection that causes a severe inflammation of the epiglottis
- most common cause of respiratory emergencies
- anatomical- swelling, etc
- mechanical-foreign object
How respiratory arrest is cared for
ABC's of breathing- listing
- Head-tilt/chin-lift technique: Push down on the forehead
- while pulling up the bony part of the jaw.
- This opens the airway by moving the tongue away from the
- back of the throat and allowing air to enter the lungs.
- After opening the airway: Look, listen and feel for
- breathing/movement for no more than 10 seconds.
- If no breathing is detected perform 2 rescue breaths,
- each lasting about 1 second.
- Check for a pulse on children and infants.
- If no pulse is detected and/or air is going into the
- lungs but the victim is not breathing on their own, perform CPR.
- When an adult’s heart stops beating it is usually a
- result of disease.
- In the case of an infant/child it is usually the result
- of a breathing emergency.
- After giving two rescue breaths and detecting no signs
- of life, CPR should be performed.
Questions to ask victim
- What is your name?
- What happened?
- Do you feel pain/discomfort anywhere?
- Do you have any allergies?
- Do you have any medical conditions?
How to transport a victim ?
- Make sure you know the quickest route to emergency care
- Ask someone to go with you if at all possible to keep
- victim calm.
- Pay close attention to the victim’s condition
A body cavity is a space in the body that contains organs such as the liver, lungs and heart
5 Major cavities- short answer
- cranial-head, skull, brain
- spinal-bottom of skull to lower back,spinal cord
- thoracic- trunk, contains heart and lungs
- abdominal- trunk between diaphragm and pelvis, most organs
- pelvic- located in pelvis, bladder, rectum, reproductive organs,
passage of a disease from one person to another
Difference between bacteria and viruses
- Bacteria is everywhere and most does not infect humans
- VIRUSES- depend on
- other organisms to live and reproduce.
3 blood borne pathogens and how they are spread
- Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
- All three can be
- spread through direct contact transmission as well as indirect contact transmission with infected blood or other body fluids.
Blood splashing in the eye, or directly touching body fluids from an infected person
- PERSONAL HYGIENE
- PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
- Wear disposable, single use gloves.
- Remove jewelry before wearing gloves.
- Cover any cuts scrapes or sores prior to wearing protective equipment.
- DO NOT use disposable gloves that are discolored, torn or punctured.
- DO NOT clean or reuse gloves.
- Wear mask, eyewear or gown if potential for splash exists
- Use breathing barriers when giving rescue breaths.
- Remove disposable gloves w/out contacting soiled part of the gloves and dispose them in proper container.
- Conscious victim as the right to refuse or accept care.
- To get consent you must tell victim:
- Who you are
- Your level of training
- The care you would like to give them.
- UNCONSCIOUS victim: consent is implied
- Consent is also implied for an infant or child if parent/guardian is not available.
Prevalence of Good Samaritan laws in U.S.
- All states have them
- When a citizen responds to emergency and acts as a reasonable and prudent person, Good Samaritan immunity generally prevails.
- Legal immunity protects citizen responders from being sued
- *Reasonable and prudent responder would:
- Move a victim only if his/her life was endangered.
- Check the victim for life threatening emergencies before giving further care.
- Call 9-1-1
- Ask conscious victim for permission
- Give care only to the level of his/her training
- Continue to give care until more highly trained personnel arrive.
Four common types of emergency moves- listing
- Walking assist- most basic, performed by one or two responders to a conscious victim
- Pack Strap Carry- can be used on conscious or unconscious victim
- Two Person Seat Carry- used for any victim who is conscious and not seriously injured
- Clothes Drag- used to move conscious or unconscious victim who is suspected of head, neck or back injury
Steps involved in checking the scene
- Is the scene safe?
- What happened?
- How many victims are there?
- Are bystanders available to help?
Two types of emerencies
- Sudden Illness
- Ex. Heart attack or Severe Allergic Reaction
- Ex. Damage to the body from external force