First Aid- Walker Exam1

  1. Two types of breathing emergencies
    • respiratory distress: most common
    • respiratory arrest
  2. Cyanotic
    bluish discoloration of the skin around the mouth or fingertips resulting from a lack of oxygen in the blood
  3. Croup
    viral infection that causes swelling of the tissues around the vocal cords.
  4. Epiglottitis
    bacterial infection that causes a severe inflammation of the epiglottis
  5. Airway obstruction
    • most common cause of respiratory emergencies
    • anatomical- swelling, etc
    • mechanical-foreign object
  6. How respiratory arrest is cared for
    rescue breathing
  7. ABC's of breathing- listing
    • airway
    • breathing
    • circulation
  8. airway
    • —Head-tilt/chin-lift technique: Push down on the forehead
    • while pulling up the bony part of the jaw.
    • —This opens the airway by moving the tongue away from the
    • back of the throat and allowing air to enter the lungs.
  9. Breathing
    • After opening the airway: Look, listen and feel for
    • breathing/movement for no more than 10 seconds.
    • —If no breathing is detected perform 2 rescue breaths,
    • each lasting about 1 second.
    • —Check for a pulse on children and infants.
    • —If no pulse is detected and/or air is going into the
    • lungs but the victim is not breathing on their own, perform CPR.
  10. Circulation
    • —When an adult’s heart stops beating it is usually a
    • result of disease.
    • —In the case of an infant/child it is usually the result
    • of a breathing emergency.
    • —After giving two rescue breaths and detecting no signs
    • of life, CPR should be performed.
  11. Questions to ask victim
    • —What is your name?
    • —What happened?
    • —Do you feel pain/discomfort anywhere?
    • —Do you have any allergies?
    • —Do you have any medical conditions?
  12. How to transport a victim ?
    • —Make sure you know the quickest route to emergency care
    • facility.
    • —Ask someone to go with you if at all possible to keep
    • victim calm.
    • —Pay close attention to the victim’s condition
  13. Body Cavity
    A body cavity is a space in the body that contains organs such as the liver, lungs and heart
  14. 5 Major cavities- short answer
    • cranial-head, skull, brain
    • spinal-bottom of skull to lower back,spinal cord
    • thoracic- trunk, contains heart and lungs
    • abdominal- trunk between diaphragm and pelvis, most organs
    • pelvic- located in pelvis, bladder, rectum, reproductive organs,
  15. Body systems
    • žRespiratory
    • žCirculatory
    • žNervous
    • žMusculoskeletal
    • žIntegumentary
    • žEndocrine
    • žDigestive
    • Genitourninary
  16. Disease transmission
    passage of a disease from one person to another
  17. Difference between bacteria and viruses
    • Bacteria is everywhere and most does not infect humans
    • VIRUSES- depend on
    • other organisms to live and reproduce.
  18. 3 blood borne pathogens and how they are spread
    • Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
    • Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
    • HIV
    • All three can be
    • spread through direct contact transmission as well as indirect contact transmission with infected blood or other body fluids.
  19. direct contact-example
    Blood splashing in the eye, or directly touching body fluids from an infected person
  20. standard precautions
    • Wear disposable, single use gloves.
    • Remove jewelry before wearing gloves.
    • Cover any cuts scrapes or sores prior to wearing protective equipment.
    • DO NOT use disposable gloves that are discolored, torn or punctured.
    • DO NOT clean or reuse gloves.
    • Wear mask, eyewear or gown if potential for splash exists
    • Use breathing barriers when giving rescue breaths.
    • Remove disposable gloves w/out contacting soiled part of the gloves and dispose them in proper container.
  21. Obtaining consent
    • Conscious victim as the right to refuse or accept care.
    • To get consent you must tell victim:
    • Who you are
    • Your level of training
    • The care you would like to give them.
    • UNCONSCIOUS victim: consent is implied
    • Consent is also implied for an infant or child if parent/guardian is not available.
  22. Prevalence of Good Samaritan laws in U.S.
    • All states have them
    • When a citizen responds to emergency and acts as a reasonable and prudent person, Good Samaritan immunity generally prevails.
    • Legal immunity protects citizen responders from being sued
    • *Reasonable and prudent responder would:
    • Move a victim only if his/her life was endangered.
    • Check the victim for life threatening emergencies before giving further care.
    • Call 9-1-1
    • Ask conscious victim for permission
    • Give care only to the level of his/her training
    • Continue to give care until more highly trained personnel arrive.
  23. Four common types of emergency moves- listing
    • Walking assist- most basic, performed by one or two responders to a conscious victim
    • Pack Strap Carry- can be used on conscious or unconscious victim
    • Two Person Seat Carry- used for any victim who is conscious and not seriously injured
    • Clothes Drag- used to move conscious or unconscious victim who is suspected of head, neck or back injury
  24. Steps involved in checking the scene
    • Is the scene safe?
    • žWhat happened?
    • žHow many victims are there?
    • Are bystanders available to help?
  25. Two types of emerencies
    • Sudden Illness
    • Ex. Heart attack or Severe Allergic Reaction
    • Injury
    • Ex. Damage to the body from external force
  26. Emergency action steps
    • Check
    • Call
    • Care
Card Set
First Aid- Walker Exam1
Exam 1, chapters 1-6?