Water, Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Fats are four of the six classes of nutrients. What are the other two?
Minerals and Vitamins are the final two. Thus Water, Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats, Minerals and Vitamins are the six classes.
The process by which living things use food to obtain nutrients for energy, growth,
development & maintenance is better known as...
Nutrition. This is its definition
Do RDI's or reference daily intakes target both individuals and groups? Is it more acceptable to talk in terms of RDI's or RDAs in the present day?
Yes, RDI's target both groups and individuals. RDI's are the more acceptable term for healthy eating habits.
True or False. The essential nutrients remain the same throughout life the amounts simply change.
True. As a person ages, they are recommended to intake more protein, while decreasing the amount of fat in their diet.
True or False. Water is the most important nutrient versus fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, or proteins?
True, water is the most important nutrient.
True or False. Increasing the variety of foods in a diet increases the likelihood of a deficiency?
False. Increasing the variety of foods in the diet decreases the likelihood of deficiencies in the diet.
What does the 10, 10, 10 concept recommend?
The 10, 10, 10 concept is an easy way to remember the breakdown of the percentages of fat intake for an adult. (10% saturated, 10% polyunsaturated, and 10% monounsaturated)
Carbohydrate intake along with the intake of N-6 and N-3 linolenic fatty acids remain pretty constant in the recommended eating habits as a person ages. What recommended nutrient tends to increase as one ages? Decrease?
The recommended protein intake tends to increase as one ages to help with weight management. The recommended fat intake tends to decrease as you age.
Can humans put in the double bonds in positions 3 and 6 in the fatty acids?
No humans can not. These omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids need to be obtained in other areas in the diet.
Water-soluble and Fat soluble vitamins are the two types of vitamins. Water-Souble vitamins tend to be absorbed at the top or bottom of the small intestine? Does this process occur by active or passive diffusion?
Water soluble vitamins require active transport to be absorbed at the top of the small intestine.
When fat soluble vitamins enter the small intestine how do they diffuse?
They enter through enterocytes which then convert them into chylomicrons. The chylomicron then enters the portal vein and then into the liver.
True or False. Water soluble vitamins are stored
False. Water soluble vitamins are not stored. However Fat Soluble Vitamins are. They are stored in lipids.
True or false. It is easy to develop a fat soluble vitamin deficiency?
False. Due to the ability to store fat soluble vitamins, a deficiency is uncommon. Example: Vitamin D deficiency is rare due to its fat soluble character.
Are water soluble vitamins labile in nature, meaning that they are more ephemeral in nature than fat soluble vitamins?
Yes, in fact the U.S. government is very adamant in regards to inspecting foods for water soluble vitamins
Which has a greater tendency towards toxicity? Fat soluble vitamins or water soluble vitamins?
Fat soluble vitamins are more toxic. For example, whalers had too much vitamin D in there diets due to the consumption of whale livers during their stay in the arctic circle for 2-3 years.
Vitamin A is fat soluble. Does it play a critical role in vision? Hint: Think about children in Africa and their consumption of Vitamin A capsules.
Yes, Vitamin A plays a role in vision. It is converted in the eye when it combines with dhopsin to form rhodopsin. It sits in the back of the eye to allow for the conversion of a protein the cis to a trans form. This allows for the perception of light via a sodium channel opening.
In addition to Blindness, a deficiency in Vitamin A leads to the degeneration of the epithelial cells. What is the remaining deficiency that Vitamin A can result in? Hint: Deals with teeth
Enamel hypoplasia is the disorder that is caused by a deficiency on Vitamin A.
True or False. A deficiency in Vitamin A causes the death of nerve fibers and blindness.
True. Vitamin A deficiency can cause the death of nerve fibers.
In regards to toxicity, Vitamin A can cause what kind of "developmental effects"?
What vitamin is often sited for cranial swelling? Hint: it is a result of using anti-aging products on the skin
Can Vitamin A simply be absorbed directly into the skin?
Yes, Vitamin A can simply be absorbed through the skin because it is a fat soluble vitamin.
PTH, Calcitonin (CT), and Vitamin D are used to regulate the amount of calcium in the blood. Cite their roles in calcium metabolism. AKA Do they increase or decrease the blood calcium?
PTH and Vitamin D work in concert to increase the amount of calcium in the blood. Calcitonin serves to decrease the amount of calcium in the blood.
What are the three organ systems that are involved in the metabolism of calcium and phosphate?
The small intestine, the kidney, and bone.
Calcium has extreme biological importance in the body. In addition to its role in salivary gland ion transport and it plays a role in calcium and phosphate metabolism. Muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, membrane stability, blood clotting, and being an intracellular messenger summarize all of its important biological roles what remains to be addressed?
Calcium also plays a role in the endocrine and exocrine secretory functions of cells. i.e. an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration results from its release from the RER. This is done via Ach binding to it's receptor and activating DAG and IP3 through Phospholipase C.
If I am describing a molecule where its primary biological roles include its participation in the formation of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, presence in ATP creatine phosphate, and cofactors like NADP, cAMP, Intositol triphosphate, DNA and RNA. What molecule am I describing?
Typically there is more calcium on the outside of a cell than on the inside (10-3 vs. 10-7) Also, the calcium on the inside of the cell is usually bound to the Rough ER while the calcium on the extracellular side is either ionized, non ionized, or bound to proteins. When there are decreased plasma levels of Calcium what is this called?
Typically there is more calcium on the outside of a cell than on the inside (10-3 vs. 10-7) Also, the calcium on the inside of the cell is usually bound to the Rough ER while the calcium on the extracellular side is either ionized, non ionized, or bound to proteins. When there are increased plasma levels of Calcium what issues can this lead to?
Cardiac failure and respiratory failure are the issues that someone with an increased plasma levels of calcium can have.
The average intake of calcium for a person is around 1000mg. What percent is absorbed if 150 mg is secreted into the intestine while 200 mg is secreted into the urine? What percent is being reabsorbed into the kidney tubules?
If 150 mg of calcium is secreted into the intestine and 200 mg is secreted into the urine then 30% of an average person's calcium intake is absorbed. 98% of this gets reabsorbed by the kidney tubules.
What are the typical percentages for circulating Calcium? (protein-bound nondifussible (inactive, non excreted), complexed with phosphate bicarbonate and citrate, and free calcium (active form))
The majority of calcium is the active form at 50% of the total protein concentration. The inactive form is at 40% while the calcium that is found complexed with phosphate, bicarbonate, and citrate is at 10%.
What is the major salt form that calcium is found in the body?
True or False. Calcium does not tend to be found chelated in the body by organic acids like citrate, oxalate, phytic acid, and bile salts.
False. Calcium tends to be found chelated in the body by organic acids like citrate, oxalate, phytic acid, and bile salts.
Where is the site of transport for Calcium? What does it depend on to accomplish this?
Calcium is transported from the small intestine. It depends on Vitamin D to do this. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin.
Where is the majority of the dietary calcium lost in the body? Is more used for bone remodeling than is secreted in the urine? Is more lost in the urinary secretion than the fecal secretion?
In fecal secretion. Of the 1000 mg that is ingested 800 is excreted in feces. Bone remodeling uses around 500 mg which is more than the 200 mg that is secreted in the urine.
True or False. PTH or parathyroid hormone that is secreted from the parathyroid (duh) acts on enterocytes in the small intestine?
False. PTH does not act on, or get absorbed by, enterocytes in the small intestine.
Of the three hormones in the blood that deal with calcium uptake and release (PTH, Vitamin D, and Calcitonin). Which two serve a similar purpose in the regulation of calcium levels? (i.e. lowering or raising the concentration)
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) and Vitamin D tend to both increase the levels of blood calcium when the detected plasma levels are low.
What are the three sites at which Vitamin D acts on during calcium/phosphate metabolism in the blood? What site is excluded for calcitonin?
Vitamin D acts on the kidney, bone, and small intestine. Meanwhile, Calcitonin does not act on the small intestine. This is similar to PTH which also does not function on the small intestine.