Energy and Life

  1. What are the two forms of energy
    • Kinetic: actively doing work
    • Potential: stored but not doing work
  2. What is the first law of thermodynamics?
    • Closed system = no exchange of matter/energy with surroundings
    • Open systems = exchanged of matter/energy with surroundings
  3. What is the first law of conservation of energy?
    • Energy cannot be crfeated or destroyed... but
    • Can be change in form
    • Means total energy does not change
  4. What is the second law of thermodynamics?
    • Number of way this law can be expressed... including matematical
    • -No energy transaction can be completely efficient
    • -In closed systems, disorder (entropy) is increasing
  5. Do living systems "obey" thermodynamics laws?
    • Yes!
    • Energy create order
  6. How is Earth is not a closed system?
    received constant source of energy from the sun (solar power)
  7. What is Metabolism?
    Sum of all chemical reactions in an organism
  8. What are the 2 types of metabolism reactions?
    • Anabolism: reactions that build things
    • Catabolism: Reactions that degrades things
  9. How are reactions organized?
    • In pathways
    • whole things makes a really complicated map...
  10. How can chemical reaction be classified based on energy?
    • Reactions that release energy are Exergonic
    • Reactions that absorb energy are Endergonic
    • Metabolic can be either
  11. In general, Anabolic reactions
    build up
  12. In general, Catabolic reactons
    break down
  13. Exergonic
    • Release energy
    • Means exergonic reactionsa re spontaneous
  14. Endergonic
    • Use energy
    • Means endergonic reactions are not spontaneous
  15. What is equilibrium
    • Most reaction are reversible, go in either direction
    • At equilibrium rate of forward = rate of reverse
  16. Equilibrium in exergonic and endergonic
    • Exergonic reactions: equilibrium favors products
    • Endergonic reactions: equilibrium favors reactants
  17. What does spontaneous mean?
    • Yes!
    • But speed is variable
  18. What are Enzymes?
    • Even exergonic reactions need activation energy
    • -energy to reach transitition state
  19. How does enzymes speed up reaction?
    • Lower activation energy
    • -allows exergonic reactons to occur faster
    • -does not change amount of engergy released
  20. How can enzymes be specific?
    Bind to substrate: molecular recognition
  21. What is ATP?
    • Adenosine triphosphate
    • "portable" energy source... "energy currency"
    • -Synthesis of ATP is endergonic
    • -Hydrolysis of ATP is exergonic
  22. How do we classify life base on carbon source?
    • Autotrophs: get carbon from CO2 (producers)
    • Heterotophs: get carbon from deit (consumers)
  23. How are heterotrophs categorize?
    • Primary consumer eat producers (plants)
    • Secondary consumer eat primary consumers
    • ...less nutrient the higher up the chain
  24. Define oxidation
    is the lost of electron
  25. Define reduction
    is the gain of electrons
  26. What are coupled Redox Reaction?
    • one atom/molecule is oxidized
    • one atom/molecule is reduced
  27. In biological systems, electrons often go with protons
    • Oxidation is the loss of hydrogen (dehydrogenation)
    • Reduction is gain of hydrogen (hydrogenation)
  28. Cellular Respiration
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Card Set
Energy and Life
Animal Bio lecture notes 9/28, 9/30