- -ask a question
- -do background research
- -construct hypothesis
- -test with experiment
- -analyze results and draw conclusions
- -either report or construct another hypothesis
a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws, logical inferences and tested hypothesis
never say going to happen
6 elements that are the major constituentes of living tissue
How much of the bioshere do CHONPS make up?
zone of life on earth
global sum of all ecosystem
components of a system
number of protons
average mass of atoms of an element, calcuated using the relative abundance of isotopes in a naturally occuring
atoms with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons
first elements made
H and He
When was the big bang
between 13-18 bya
What is the big bang making H and He called?
how fast were H and He formed?
What happened 1 billion years after the big bang?
Stars and hevier elements formed
what was the stars forming 1 billion years after the big bang called?
How do you create heavier elements?
up tempurature and pressure
Who came up with the Nebular hypothosis
What is the Nebular Hypothosis called today
solar nebular disk
The Nebular Hypothosis
Explosion - lots of gas and particles
light on the outside/heavy and dense on inside
formation of protoplanets = mashed together
solar system - dense planets close and gas planets far out
When was earth formed?
How much bigger was the earth when it was formed?
what was the earth made of when formed?
mostly H and He
How did the earth get to the size it is now?
heavier elements pulled into center
H and He blown away by solar wind
What was the earth like when formed
hot and molten
What does our solar system look like?
medium sized star
How many stars in the milky way galaxy?
Which direction are most of the galaxies moving?
away from the milky way
Where are the rocky planets?
on the inside
where are the gas giants?
on the outside
What is density?
mass per unit volume ex: g/cm3
physical earth layers
- -outer core - liquid
- -inner core - soild
origin of the earth's atmosphere
partial melting resulted in outgasing
when was the atmosphere created?
What is outgassing
similar to gases emitted by a volcanoe
- mainly water vapors
- CO2 H
- other gases
Where did the ocean come from?
- 1. outgasing - water vapor release, condensed as rain, accumulate, 4 bya, mostly from here
- 2. comets - ice
-70.8% covered by water
- -97% in seawater in oceans and seas
- -2% freshwater lakes and rivers
- -1% ice and snow
- .00057% atmospheric water
When was the moon formed?
how was the moon formed
How much of the earth is covered by water?
an atom or molecule where the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net overall negative or positive charge
electrons gained or lost
intermolecular bond of H with an electronegative atom
What is the angle between the two H+ in water?
what is the bond in a water molecule?
negative and positive ends
bonding between water molecules
which is stronger hydrogen or covalent bond?
what is responsible for water surface tension
makes beads stay in place
H bonding causes
How much water in humans
how much water in blood
how much water in plants?
how much water in jellyfish?
water is the universal solvent
it can dissolved nearly everything
how do water molecules disolve things?
water molecules can fit around sodium
total amount of solid material dissolves in water (not including disolved organic substances) it is the ration of the mass of the disolved stubstances to the mass of the water sample
it does not include fine particles
how do we express salinity?
parts per thousand
what are over 1/2 of the salts in the ocean
how do we measure salinity
principle of constant proportion
principle of constant proportion
the major dissolved constituents responsible for the salinity of seawater occur nearly everywhere in the ocean in exact same proportions, regardless of saleinty
1.80655 x chlorinity
what are the states of matter?
how do change matter from one state to another?
add or remove heat
Heat comes from...
- -chemical reaction
- -radioactive decay
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram by 1 degree C
water as a gas
liquid to gas
gas to liquid
the amount of heat required to raise the temp of a substance by 1 degree C
high heat capacity
then the substance can absorb or lose large quantities of heat with only a small change in temp - water
quantity of heat gained or lost per unit of mass as a substance undergoes a change of state
warm at equator
on either side are evaporation lattitudes
after the evaporation lattitudes
where is heat moved to?
homogenus, remove strong gardients - decreasing wind speeds
does the ocean temp change day and night
largest geographic feature
6.5 x larger than US
5.5x bigger than US
became official ocean in 2000
wind can blow
smallest and most shallow
sea vs. ocean
surrounded by land
when did people start migrating across Pacific
who were the first to migrate across the pacific ocean
Why did the polynesian people travel across the pacific ocean
probably for food in canoes
explored area larger than china and soviet union combined
early navigation *
- -reflection of islands in clouds
- -followed birds - eg. frigate and terns - dusk/dawn pattern
- -stick charts
build raft with tradtion sails
made it from Peru in 1947
made it in less time
redid experiment with modern equipment
- mediterranean explorers and traders
- hug coast
- made it around africa
the world according to herodotus
1st to make map of ocea
- -greek explorer
- -325 bc
- -explored coast of England, Norway
- -discovered the Atlantic had tides and linked to moon
- -276-196 BC
- -librarian at the library of Alexandria - collected ship logs-center for knowledge for Nautical Science
- -figured out circumprerences of earth
- -use direction and angle of sun
- -his value 40,000 km - true 40,032 km
- -lots of exploration
- -ate mushrooms
- -farthest known extent of eurpopean exploration before columbus
- -erik the red - sailed west from iceland and discovered greenland
- -leif eriksson- son of erik the red - set out to find newfoundland and did named it vinland
- -5 ships and 288 sailors return with 1 ship and 18 sailors
- -Juan Sebastian del Cano - made it back Magellan didn't
- -Prince Henry - The Navigator - School for Mariners
- -Bartholomew Diaz - 1488 - Cape of Good Hope - tip of Africa
Three expeditions of Captain James Cook
dates of Captain James Cook's expeditions
What was the importance of Captain James Cook
1st time for systematic exploration of ocean
The cook expedition
- -extensive scientific investigations
- -arctic to antarctic
- -map Pacific Ocean
- -depth sounding - rope and weight
- -wind and currents
- -subsurface tempuratures
- -biological sampling
- -general geography of the pacific and atlantic
Charles Darwin's boat
importance of Charles Darwin
origin of species - trained naturalsit
when was the US Exploring Expedetions
what was the importance of the US exploring Expedition
- explored coast of Antarctica
- map of oregon territory
- throughly explored hawaii
who was in charge of the US exploring expedition
Lt. Matthew Maury
Lt. Matthew Maury
- US Navy
- 1st oceanogrphy text book
- father of physical oceanography
who lead the challenger expedition
charles wyville tomson
importance of the challenger exedition
made 362 sample/observations at intervals as nearly uniform as possible
what was discovered from the 362 sample/observations on the challenger expedition
- sample bottom
- bottom tempurature recorded
life couldn't exist below a certain depth of the ocean
The challenger and the azoics theory
- 133 dredges - 4700 new species of animals
- william beebe and otis barton
- 923 m
- 2500 researchers
- 4400 dives
take long cores
- learn about water column
Satellites can tell us
- ocean height
- Chl (a measure of plant productivity)
1596 - Abraham Ortelius
- could be joined
- finally together in theory
When was Pangaea?
Why is Pangaea not a tight fit?
things are always happening to the coast
How many m off the coast makes a better Pangaea fit
Who decided to use 200 m off the coast?
what were the evidence for Pangaea?
How were glaciers a proponent for Pangaea?
- ~300 mya deposits
- worldwide ice age or continents move
- same time period has coal deposits in North America
How were fossils a proponent for Pangaea?
- plants, reptiles
- mesosaurus - before would have been magiced from south america to africa
Continental Drift Hypothesis - lines of evidence
- fit of continents
- matching mountains
- distribution of organisms
Mechanisms of doubt for Pangaea
- continents "plow" through the ocean basins - claculations showed this to be incorrect
- continents moved because of gravitational attraction between sun and moon
structure of earth
how much of the world does the crust make up?
How thick is the crust
what is the density of the crust?
What rocks make up the crust?
Al, Si, O
What percent of the earth is the mantle?
how thick is the mantle
What rocks make up the mantle?
- Dense, Hot rocks
- Mg, Fe, Si, O
What percent of the earth is core?
How thick is the core?
What state is the outer core?
what state is the inner core
How does pressure effect melting points?
- increase pressure = higher melting point
- 9900 without pressure to 22000 degrees F with pressure
What is the characteristic make up of the continental crust?
- thick and light
- 2.7 g/cm3
what is the characteristic makeup of the oceanic crust?
Characteristic rock of the continental crust?
- Texture: Course
- Color: Light
Characteristic rock of the oceanic crust?
- Texture: Fine/Course
- Color: Dark
What is the characteristic makeup of the upper mantle
even denser rock
What is the boundary between crust and the mantle called?
Who was the Moho named after?
Where is the Moho closest the surface?
Ocean - because thinner
Boyancy and Isostatic Pressure
if weight added - displaces more water
the vertical movement of the crust
What is isostatic adjustment the result of
the buoyancy of the earth's lithosphere as it floats on the denser, plastic like asthenosphere below
how far was Canada depressed why
- 1640-2300 ft below present
- level undercover of ice 1.2-1.9 miles thick
More evidence for continental drift
- Oceanic crust younger than continental crust
- midatlantic ridge conform to shoreline
What is the worlds largest mountain chain
Who discovered the mid-oceanic ridge?
Harry Hess - US Navy Captain
When did Harry Hess discover mid-ocean ridges?
How did Harry Hess discover mid-ocean ridges?
during WW II left depth recorder on all the time and noticed
What did Harry Hess notice during WWII
- 1. extensive mountain ridges in the center of ocean basin
- 2. extremely deep ocean trenches at the edge of the ocean basins
- 3. undersea volcanoes had flat peaks
- 4. less sediment at mountain ridges
where is the oldest sea floor
where is the newest sea floor
by ridges - not quite as dense
why are there flat volcanoes below the sea
by the contients
where are peaky volcanoes
What did Harry Hess call Sea Floor Spreading?
Sea floor spreading
- 1. New crust formed at ridges
- 2. Volcanoes that form are close to surface - eroded=flat top
- 3. Deep ocean trenches are where sea floor descends back into mantle
- 4. Mud and sediments deposited on the ocean floor thin toward the mid-ocean ridges
What did Drumand Mathews and Fred Vine do?
measured first magnetic anomalies in the Indian Ocean
Who first measured magnetic anomalies
Drumand mathews and Fred Vine
Who discovered earth's magnet field and when
- Carl Friedrich Gaus
where as the history of plate movement been captured
residual magnetic fields
formed from cooling magna that contains iron oxide
How often does the earth's magnetic field flip?
200,000 years on average
When was the last time the earth's magnetic field flip?
750,000 years ago
What is the time between magnetic field reversals like
How does the earth prepare for a magnetic flip?
- slowly diminishes
- declining pretty steadily
- take a really long time
what is a flat volcano called?
Where has a history of plate movemnt been captured?
in residual magnetic fields
formed from the cooling magma that contains iron oxide
strips of magnetism were a historical record of new sea floor
Two theories about crust being driven apart
- 1. ridge push
- 2. slab pull
boyant magma pushes up driving plates apart
old dense, heavy plate sinks pulling plates behind also called slab suction - conveyor belt movement
- mid-ocean ridges
- continental margins
- ocean floors and deep sea trenches
divide into 3 parts
the continental shelf
the relatively shallow (up to 200 meters) seabed surrounding a continent
- lies at water depth
- ~2-3 km
- submarine canyons
broad underwater plain
Deep Ocean Basin
- Abyssal Plains
- Abyssal Hills
A flat-topped submarine mountain
A broad, relatively flat region of the ocean that lies at least 4.5 km below sea level
Relatively small topographic features of a dominantly flat, deep-ocean floor, commonly 50-250 m in height and a few kilometers in width. They are most typical of the Pacific Ocean floor at depths of 3000-6000 m
What is the deepest point in the earth's ocean?
Challenger Deep in the Marina Trench
How deep is the Challenger Deep?
Who went down in the challenger deep?
Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard
How deep did Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard go?
How long was their time underwater and how long were they on the bottom?
What are three big geologic plates
- North American
Where do most earthquakes happen?
Along plate lines
How fast do plates move on average?
What movements are caused by plate techtonics?
- 1. Divergent
- 2. Convergent
- 3. Transform
Divergent Plate Boundaries
boundries between plates moving apart
example of divergent plate boundary
What is the techtonic process of a divergent plat boundary
sea floor spreading, new sea floor created
What crust interacts in a divergent plate boundary
oceanic to oceanic crust
What does a faster spreading divergent plate boundry look like
broader, less rugged
What are earthquakes relationship to divergent plate boundaries
amount of energy released is related to spreading rate
Faster spread - less energy relased in each earthquake
where does the mid-atlantic ridge come onland
What is a divergent plate boundrary on land called?
convergent plate boundary
regions where plates are pushing together
buckling and shortening
What are the three types of convergent plate boundaries
- 1. oceanic-continental
- 2. oceanic-oceanic
- 3. continental-continental
What is an example of oceanic-continetal convergent plate boundary and what happens?
- old sea floor destroyed
What is an example of oceanic-oceanic convergent plate boundary and what happens
- Aleutian Islands - Island arc formation and trenchs
- old sea floor destroyed
What is an an example and what happens at continental-continental convergent plate boundary
- The Himalayas
- sea floor not created or destoryed
transform plate boundries
What is an example of a transform plate boundary and what does it do?
- San andreas Fault
- transform faulting
- sea floor not created or destoryed
What are the three types of transform plate boundaries
Example of a place that there is no plate movement, but geologic activity
- don't know why
- certain areas in mantle get hot areas - can come all the way to surface
- ocean formed
- 1. continent rift
- 2. sea floor created
- 3. expand
- 4. subducting
- 5. sea smaller
- 6. collision
the sun is the primary force of energy on earth
What drives the circulation of the atmosphere and the ocean and is the source of energy for almost all living organisms?
How much N is in the atmosphere
How much o is in the atmosphere?
How much Ar is in the atmpshere
How much carbon dioxide is in the atmosphere an dhow much is is it increasing and how much in Aug 2010
Who came up with the greenhouse effect and when\
What is the difference of sunlight if the earth was flat vs. round
- flat- sun come in fairly easilya nd evenly
- round- different areas getting less sunlight, start to bend
what is the tilt of the earth
the fraction of incident electromagnetic radiation reflected by a surface
- low abedo
- forest and ocean
- high albedo
- ice caps and clouds
How does albedo help melt the ice caps
- pools of water absorb
- then melt more and absorb more
- melt and absorb
is heat transported
atmoshpereic and oceanic circulation
- warm air rises
- cold air falls
Air holding water vapor
- cool air cannot hold much water vapor so typically dry
- warm air can hold more water vapor so typically moist
How does water vapor effect density
water vapor decreases the density of air
Pressure, air, and water vapor
- a column of cool, dense air caused high pressure at the surface - sinking air
- a column of warm less dense air causes low pressure at the surface - rising air
Where is there the most intense radiation
at the equator - warm air
What are the three convection cells and what are their latitudes?
- Hadley Cell 0-30
- Ferrel Cell 30-60
- Polar Cell 60-90
What to these convection cells on the earth create?
What is another name for the equator?
what is a name for 30 degress latitude
What winds are between the doldrums and the horse latitudes
NE and SE trade winds
What winds are between 30-60 degrees latitude
What winds are between the 60 and 90 latitude
What is global climate driven by *
- 1. differential heating of the tropics - amount of radiation over larger surface area at poles, radiation travels through more atmopshere at poles
- 2. Heat redistribution - atmosphere circulation (winds) - ocean curents
- 3. change in air density - pressure gradiant
- 4. Coriolis effect
the effect of the rotation of the earth on the direction of the wind
Which way does the earth spin
East to west
How fast does the earth spin at the equator and at 30 degrees
Looking from the north pole
- earth is rotating counterclockwishe
- shift to the right
looking fromt he south pole
- the earth is rotating clockwise
- shift to the left
Intertropical convergence Zone
What is the intertropical convergence zone
- clouds collect here
- shifts depending on what time of year - summer up, winter down
day-to-day state of the atmosphere and is short term (min-weeks) variation
statistical weather information that describes the variation of weather at a given place for a specified interval (usually over 30 years), statistics of weather extreem
air spins counter clockwishe
- cyclonic flow
- low pressure
air spins clockwise
- anti-cydonic flow
- high pressure
atlantic and e. pacific
indian and austrialia
What is the scale which hurciannes are graded on
what do you need for a hurricane
- warm water
- distance from the equator to get that spin
Two types of ocean currents
- 1. wind driven
- 2. density drive
wind driven ocean curents
- surface curents
- dwon to ~ 1 km
- 10 %
- moves water horizontally
density (gravity) driven ocean currents
- moves water vertically
- responsible for mixing water masses
How do we measure wind induced surface curents
- basic current meters
- Satellites - TOPEX/Poseidon radar - ocean surface dynamic
Why do surface currents develop?
friction between wind and water
How much of winds energy is transfere to the ocean
any large system of rotating ocean currents particurally those involved with large wind movements
5 large gyres
- 1. North Atlantic
- 2. South Atlantic
- 3. Indian
- 4. North Pacific
- 5. South Pacific
Subtropical gyres are made of 4 main current types
- 1. equatorial
- 2. western boundary
- 3. northern or southern boundary
- 4. eastren boundary
Western boundary currents
- ex: kurcitio and gulf stream
- narrow <100 km
- deep - up to 2 km
- fast - hundreds of km/day
- moving warm water to pole
- Wide >1000 km
- shallow - .5 km
- slow - 10s of km/day
- move cool water to equator
- leads to ekman transport of water
- 90 degrees to the wind that forces motion
- drives upwelling
What are two other names for deep water circulation
- termohailine circulation
- abyssal circulation
What is density a function of
tempurature and salinity
- deep currents
- have ballast and sink
- bomb around in current - send back info to sattelite
- 3149 out right now
what is the driving mechanism for surculation in the deep ocean
what is thermohaline ciruclation driven by
tempurature and salineity
When water evaporates what happens to salinity
important in dynamics and bio heat transport
Importance of deep ocean currents
- virtical stratification
- heat transport
- it provides O to deep ocean
- stores anthropogenic carbon dioxide
How far does the sun heat the water
How are denisty and temp related on a graph
sources of deep ocean water in low latitude
strong thermocline stratived
sources of deep ocean water in high latitude
vertically well mixed
What speed are deep ocean curents
North Atlantic deep water formation
- evaporation - Temp drops, Salinity rises
- Ice formation - Salinity rises by brine injection
Pacific deep water formation
no deep water formation - salinity uniform
Who came up with the ocean conveyor belt
Who decided it was more complicated than a simple conveyor belt
Thremohaline circulation and climate change
- haline forcing is affect by excess rain, runoff on ice melt
- -slowdown or shutdown conver belt
conver belt disruped
What are most waves?
what is a wind driven wave
moving energy along ocean/air interface
Types of waves
- air/ocean interface
- air air interface
- splace waves
- seismic sea wave or tsunami
gravitational attraction among moon, sun, and earth
still water level
the height of the water without any waves
- distance between crest and trough
bottom of the wave
- the time it takes for a full wavelength to pass a fixed position
- waves transmit energy
- cyclic motion of particles in the ocean
waves may move
- up and down
- back and forth
- around and around
- side to side
- string to doorknob - flick it
transverse and longitudinal waves make...
rubber duck bobbing up and down, but makes a full circle
- equal to 1/2 the wave length (at SWL) or L/2
- how deep orbital motion of wave felt
what controls the depth of the wave base
- longer the wave the deeper the wave base
We describe waves in realtion to the depth of the water and their wavelength
- deepwater wave
- shallow wave
- transitional wave
deep water waves
- water depth is greater than the wave base
Shallow water waves - long wave
water depth is <L/20
Deeper the water
the faster the shallow waves move
- charactersitics of booth deep and shallow water waves
- L/20 < depth < L/2
How do you build a big wave
how long wind blows in one direction
distance it blows in one dicrection
different size waves based on wind speed, duration, and fetch
- wave height/wave length
- ration of H to L exceeds 1/7 - the wave breaks
- max wave height
longest wind driven waves are where?
- the rate at which the wave travels
wave seeped used only in relation to waves where no mass is moved
three types of waves
- deep water waes
- shallow water waves
- transitional waves
deep water waves
moves at speeds controlled by wavelength
shallow water waves
moves at speeds controlled by water depth
in between deep water waves and shallow water waves
Beaufort wind scale and the state of the ocean
- 0 - sea like a mirror
- up force - up wind
- 12 - hurricane
wave interference patterns
Freak wave, rogue waves, extreem waves
out of nowhere - not the right conditions
in open ocean 1 in 23 waves
2 x as high
in open ocean 1 in 1175 waves will be
3x as high
in open ocean 1 in 300,000 waves will be
4x as high
truly big waves are 1 in
Why are there freak waves?
Don't really know
- constructive interference
- mixing current energy
- reationship with land
Three catagories of freak waves
- walls of water
- 3 sisters
- single giant storm waves
max wave height
- reliable messurement
- 34 m or 112 ft - 11 story building
The draupner wave
- single giant
- New years day 1995 - confirmed exhistance of freak waves
- uniform symmetrical waves that travel outward from storm area
- long crests
do longer or shorter wavelength waves travel faster
longer wavelenght - outdistance other waves
group of waves with similar characteristics
sorting waves by their wavelengths
Ground swell vs. wind swell
ground swell is in the deep ocean , idstant stor or earthquake, touch the ground, farther distance, larger
As waves approach shore
- down wave speed
- down wavelength
- up wave height
- up wave steepness
- wave break
breakers in surf zone
- top of the wave crashes over on itself
- wave form not sustained
- breakers associated with slope of sea floor
- water slides down front of slope wave
- gently sloping sea floor
- curling crest
- moderately sloping sea floor
- wave energy expended over shorter distance
- best for board surfers
- breakers on shore
- steepest sea floor
- energy spread over shortest distance
- best for body surfing
why is there better surfing on west coast than the east
- longer duration and fetch
- steeper slopes
- wind blows toward the shore
Tsunami or seismic sea wave
- release of energy
- earthquake, landslide, volcanic erruption
- long wave length - shallow water wave
- speed proportional to water depth - very fast in open ocean
- sea level can rise up to 40 m
- most occur in Pacific ocean