1. scientific method
    • -ask a question
    • -do background research
    • -construct hypothesis
    • -test with experiment
    • -analyze results and draw conclusions
    • -either report or construct another hypothesis
  2. theory
    a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws, logical inferences and tested hypothesis

    never say going to happen
  3. 6 elements that are the major constituentes of living tissue
    • C
    • H
    • O
    • N
    • P
    • S
  4. How much of the bioshere do CHONPS make up?
  5. biosphere
    zone of life on earth

    global sum of all ecosystem
  6. ecosystem

    components of a system
  7. atomic number
    number of protons
  8. atomic weight
    average mass of atoms of an element, calcuated using the relative abundance of isotopes in a naturally occuring
  9. isotope *
    atoms with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons
  10. first elements made
    H and He
  11. When was the big bang
    between 13-18 bya
  12. What is the big bang making H and He called?
  13. how fast were H and He formed?
    100-300 sec
  14. What happened 1 billion years after the big bang?
    Stars and hevier elements formed
  15. what was the stars forming 1 billion years after the big bang called?
    stellar nucleosynthesis
  16. How do you create heavier elements?
    up tempurature and pressure

    combine He's
  17. Who came up with the Nebular hypothosis
    Emanuel Swedenborg
  18. What is the Nebular Hypothosis called today
    solar nebular disk
  19. The Nebular Hypothosis
    Explosion - lots of gas and particles

    light on the outside/heavy and dense on inside

    formation of protoplanets = mashed together

    solar system - dense planets close and gas planets far out
  20. When was earth formed?
    4.6 bya
  21. How much bigger was the earth when it was formed?
    1000 x
  22. what was the earth made of when formed?
    mostly H and He
  23. How did the earth get to the size it is now?
    heavier elements pulled into center

    H and He blown away by solar wind
  24. What was the earth like when formed
    hot and molten
  25. What does our solar system look like?
    8 planets

    medium sized star
  26. How many stars in the milky way galaxy?
  27. How many galaxies?
  28. Which direction are most of the galaxies moving?
    away from the milky way
  29. Where are the rocky planets?
    on the inside
  30. where are the gas giants?
    on the outside
  31. Density stratification
    crust forms
  32. What is density?
    mass per unit volume ex: g/cm3
  33. physical earth layers
    • -crust
    • -ocean
    • -lithosphere
    • -asthenosphere
    • -mesosphere
    • -outer core - liquid
    • -inner core - soild
  34. chemical earth layers
    • -crust
    • -ocean
    • -mantle
    • -core
  35. origin of the earth's atmosphere
    partial melting resulted in outgasing
  36. when was the atmosphere created?
    40 bya
  37. What is outgassing
    similar to gases emitted by a volcanoe

    • mainly water vapors
    • CO2 H
    • other gases
  38. Where did the ocean come from?
    • 1. outgasing - water vapor release, condensed as rain, accumulate, 4 bya, mostly from here
    • 2. comets - ice
  39. planet water
    -70.8% covered by water

    • -97% in seawater in oceans and seas
    • -2% freshwater lakes and rivers
    • -1% ice and snow
    • .00057% atmospheric water
  40. When was the moon formed?
    4.5 bya
  41. how was the moon formed
    meteor collision


  42. How much of the earth is covered by water?
  43. ion
    an atom or molecule where the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net overall negative or positive charge
  44. types of bonds
    • ionic
    • covalent
    • hydrogen
  45. ionic bond
    electrons gained or lost
  46. covalent bond
    electrons shared
  47. hydrogen bond
    intermolecular bond of H with an electronegative atom
  48. cation
  49. anion
  50. What is the angle between the two H+ in water?
    105 degrees
  51. what is the bond in a water molecule?
  52. polarity
    negative and positive ends
  53. bonding between water molecules
  54. which is stronger hydrogen or covalent bond?
  55. cohesion
    makes beading
  56. what is responsible for water surface tension
    Hydrogen bonds
  57. adhesion
    makes beads stay in place

    H bonding causes
  58. How much water in humans
  59. how much water in blood
  60. how much water in plants?
  61. how much water in jellyfish?
  62. water is the universal solvent
    it can dissolved nearly everything
  63. how do water molecules disolve things?
    water molecules can fit around sodium

    hydrated molecule
  64. salinity
    total amount of solid material dissolves in water (not including disolved organic substances) it is the ration of the mass of the disolved stubstances to the mass of the water sample

    it does not include fine particles
  65. how do we express salinity?
    parts per thousand

  66. what are over 1/2 of the salts in the ocean
  67. how do we measure salinity
    principle of constant proportion
  68. principle of constant proportion
    the major dissolved constituents responsible for the salinity of seawater occur nearly everywhere in the ocean in exact same proportions, regardless of saleinty
  69. salinity=
    1.80655 x chlorinity
  70. what are the states of matter?
    • liquid
    • solid
    • gas
  71. how do change matter from one state to another?
    add or remove heat
  72. Heat comes from...
    • -friction
    • -burning
    • -chemical reaction
    • -radioactive decay
  73. calorie
    the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram by 1 degree C
  74. water as a gas
    water vapor
  75. water as a solid
  76. water as a liquid
  77. solid to liquid
  78. liquid to gas
    • vaporization
    • evaporation
    • boiling
  79. gas to solid
  80. solid to gas
  81. gas to liquid
  82. liquid to solid
  83. temp water boils
    • 212 F
    • 100 C
  84. temp water freezes
    • 32 F
    • 0 C
  85. temp of absolute 0
    • -459 F
    • -273 C
  86. Heat capacity
    the amount of heat required to raise the temp of a substance by 1 degree C
  87. high heat capacity
    then the substance can absorb or lose large quantities of heat with only a small change in temp - water
  88. latent heat
    quantity of heat gained or lost per unit of mass as a substance undergoes a change of state
  89. warm at equator
    on either side are evaporation lattitudes
  90. after the evaporation lattitudes
    precipitation lattitudes
  91. where is heat moved to?
    the poles
  92. climate
    homogenus, remove strong gardients - decreasing wind speeds
  93. does the ocean temp change day and night
  94. pacific ocean
    first formed


    largest geographic feature
  95. atlantic ocean
    second largest

    6.5 x larger than US
  96. Indian Ocean
    3rd largest

    5.5x bigger than US
  97. Southern Ocean
    became official ocean in 2000

    wind can blow

    gigantic waves
  98. arctic ocean
    smallest and most shallow
  99. sea vs. ocean
    surrounded by land


  100. when did people start migrating across Pacific
    30,000 ya
  101. who were the first to migrate across the pacific ocean
  102. Why did the polynesian people travel across the pacific ocean
    probably for food in canoes

    explored area larger than china and soviet union combined
  103. early navigation *
    • -reflection of islands in clouds
    • -followed birds - eg. frigate and terns - dusk/dawn pattern
    • -stars
    • -swells
    • -stick charts
  104. kon-tiki
    build raft with tradtion sails

    made it from Peru in 1947

    made it in less time
  105. Tangaroa Expedition
    redid experiment with modern equipment
  106. pheonicians
    • mediterranean explorers and traders
    • hug coast
    • made it around africa
  107. the world according to herodotus
    1st to make map of ocea
  108. pytheus
    • -greek explorer
    • -325 bc
    • -explored coast of England, Norway
    • -discovered the Atlantic had tides and linked to moon
  109. Eratosthenes
    • -276-196 BC
    • -librarian at the library of Alexandria - collected ship logs-center for knowledge for Nautical Science
    • -figured out circumprerences of earth
    • -use direction and angle of sun
    • -his value 40,000 km - true 40,032 km
  110. vikings
    • -lots of exploration
    • -ate mushrooms
    • -farthest known extent of eurpopean exploration before columbus
    • -erik the red - sailed west from iceland and discovered greenland
    • -leif eriksson- son of erik the red - set out to find newfoundland and did named it vinland
  111. Magellan
    • -1519-1521
    • -5 ships and 288 sailors return with 1 ship and 18 sailors
    • -Juan Sebastian del Cano - made it back Magellan didn't
  112. Portugal
    • -Prince Henry - The Navigator - School for Mariners
    • -Bartholomew Diaz - 1488 - Cape of Good Hope - tip of Africa
  113. Three expeditions of Captain James Cook
    • endeavour
    • resolution
    • adventure
  114. dates of Captain James Cook's expeditions
  115. What was the importance of Captain James Cook
    1st time for systematic exploration of ocean
  116. The cook expedition
    • -extensive scientific investigations
    • -arctic to antarctic
    • -map Pacific Ocean
    • -depth sounding - rope and weight
    • -wind and currents
    • -subsurface tempuratures
    • -biological sampling
    • -general geography of the pacific and atlantic
  117. Charles Darwin's boat
  118. importance of Charles Darwin
    origin of species - trained naturalsit

    geographic expedition
  119. when was the US Exploring Expedetions
  120. what was the importance of the US exploring Expedition
    • explored coast of Antarctica
    • map of oregon territory
    • throughly explored hawaii
  121. who was in charge of the US exploring expedition
    Lt. Matthew Maury
  122. Lt. Matthew Maury
    • US Navy
    • 1st oceanogrphy text book
    • father of physical oceanography
  123. who lead the challenger expedition
    charles wyville tomson
  124. importance of the challenger exedition
    made 362 sample/observations at intervals as nearly uniform as possible
  125. what was discovered from the 362 sample/observations on the challenger expedition
    • depth
    • sample bottom
    • bottom tempurature recorded
  126. Azoics Theory
    life couldn't exist below a certain depth of the ocean
  127. The challenger and the azoics theory
    • dispelled
    • 133 dredges - 4700 new species of animals
  128. The bathysphere
    • william beebe and otis barton
    • 1934
    • 923 m
  129. The Trieste
    US Navy
  130. Alvin
    • 2500 researchers
    • 4400 dives
  131. take long cores
    • learn about water column
    • 1980's
  132. NOAH bouys
    recording data
  133. Satellites can tell us
    • ocean height
    • waves
    • temperature
    • Chl (a measure of plant productivity)
  134. Conteniental drift
    1596 - Abraham Ortelius
  135. Edward Seuss
    • glossapteris fern
    • 1885
  136. Alfred Wegener
    • 1912
    • could be joined
    • finally together in theory
  137. When was Pangaea?
    200 mya
  138. Why is Pangaea not a tight fit?
    things are always happening to the coast
  139. How many m off the coast makes a better Pangaea fit
    200 m
  140. Who decided to use 200 m off the coast?
    Edward Bolard
  141. what were the evidence for Pangaea?
    • mountains
    • glaciers
    • fossils
  142. How were glaciers a proponent for Pangaea?
    • ~300 mya deposits
    • worldwide ice age or continents move
    • same time period has coal deposits in North America
  143. How were fossils a proponent for Pangaea?
    • plants, reptiles
    • mesosaurus - before would have been magiced from south america to africa
  144. Continental Drift Hypothesis - lines of evidence
    • fit of continents
    • matching mountains
    • glaciers
    • distribution of organisms
  145. Mechanisms of doubt for Pangaea
    • continents "plow" through the ocean basins - claculations showed this to be incorrect
    • continents moved because of gravitational attraction between sun and moon
  146. structure of earth
  147. Hydrosphere
    ~ 4km
  148. how much of the world does the crust make up?
  149. How thick is the crust
    35-40 km
  150. what is the density of the crust?
  151. What rocks make up the crust?
    Al, Si, O
  152. What percent of the earth is the mantle?
  153. how thick is the mantle
    ~2900 km
  154. What rocks make up the mantle?
    • Dense, Hot rocks
    • Mg, Fe, Si, O
  155. What percent of the earth is core?
  156. How thick is the core?
    ~3500 km
  157. What state is the outer core?
  158. what state is the inner core
  159. How does pressure effect melting points?
    • increase pressure = higher melting point
    • 9900 without pressure to 22000 degrees F with pressure
  160. What is the characteristic make up of the continental crust?
    • thick and light
    • 2.7 g/cm3
  161. what is the characteristic makeup of the oceanic crust?
    • thin and dense
    • 3.0 g/cm3
  162. Characteristic rock of the continental crust?
    • Granite
    • Texture: Course
    • Color: Light
  163. Characteristic rock of the oceanic crust?
    • Basalt
    • Texture: Fine/Course
    • Color: Dark
  164. What is the characteristic makeup of the upper mantle
    even denser rock
  165. What is the boundary between crust and the mantle called?
  166. Who was the Moho named after?
    Andrija Mohorovicic
  167. Where is the Moho closest the surface?
    Ocean - because thinner
  168. Boyancy and Isostatic Pressure
    if weight added - displaces more water
  169. Isostatic adjustment
    the vertical movement of the crust
  170. What is isostatic adjustment the result of
    the buoyancy of the earth's lithosphere as it floats on the denser, plastic like asthenosphere below
  171. how far was Canada depressed why
    • 1640-2300 ft below present
    • level undercover of ice 1.2-1.9 miles thick
  172. More evidence for continental drift
    • Oceanic crust younger than continental crust
    • midatlantic ridge conform to shoreline
  173. What is the worlds largest mountain chain
    mid-oceanic ridge
  174. Who discovered the mid-oceanic ridge?
    Harry Hess - US Navy Captain
  175. When did Harry Hess discover mid-ocean ridges?
  176. How did Harry Hess discover mid-ocean ridges?
    during WW II left depth recorder on all the time and noticed
  177. What did Harry Hess notice during WWII
    • 1. extensive mountain ridges in the center of ocean basin
    • 2. extremely deep ocean trenches at the edge of the ocean basins
    • 3. undersea volcanoes had flat peaks
    • 4. less sediment at mountain ridges
  178. where is the oldest sea floor
    by continents
  179. where is the newest sea floor
    by ridges - not quite as dense
  180. why are there flat volcanoes below the sea

    by the contients
  181. where are peaky volcanoes
    by ridges
  182. What did Harry Hess call Sea Floor Spreading?
  183. Sea floor spreading
    • 1. New crust formed at ridges
    • 2. Volcanoes that form are close to surface - eroded=flat top
    • 3. Deep ocean trenches are where sea floor descends back into mantle
    • 4. Mud and sediments deposited on the ocean floor thin toward the mid-ocean ridges
  184. What did Drumand Mathews and Fred Vine do?
    measured first magnetic anomalies in the Indian Ocean
  185. Who first measured magnetic anomalies
    Drumand mathews and Fred Vine
  186. Who discovered earth's magnet field and when
    • Carl Friedrich Gaus
    • 1800's
  187. where as the history of plate movement been captured
    residual magnetic fields
  188. Magnetite
    formed from cooling magna that contains iron oxide
  189. How often does the earth's magnetic field flip?
    200,000 years on average
  190. When was the last time the earth's magnetic field flip?
    750,000 years ago
  191. What is the time between magnetic field reversals like
    highly variable
  192. How does the earth prepare for a magnetic flip?
    • slowly diminishes
    • declining pretty steadily
    • take a really long time
  193. what is a flat volcano called?
    sea mount
  194. Where has a history of plate movemnt been captured?
    in residual magnetic fields
  195. magnetite
    formed from the cooling magma that contains iron oxide
  196. magnetic anomalies
    strips of magnetism were a historical record of new sea floor
  197. Two theories about crust being driven apart
    • 1. ridge push
    • 2. slab pull
  198. Ridge Push
    boyant magma pushes up driving plates apart
  199. slab pull
    old dense, heavy plate sinks pulling plates behind also called slab suction - conveyor belt movement
  200. Ocean bathymetry
    • mid-ocean ridges
    • continental margins
    • ocean floors and deep sea trenches
  201. Continental margin
    divide into 3 parts
  202. the continental shelf
    the relatively shallow (up to 200 meters) seabed surrounding a continent
  203. slope
    • lies at water depth
    • ~2-3 km
    • submarine canyons
  204. rise
    broad underwater plain
  205. Deep Ocean Basin
    • Abyssal Plains
    • Abyssal Hills
    • Seamounts
    • guyots
  206. guyots
    A flat-topped submarine mountain
  207. Abyssal Plains
    A broad, relatively flat region of the ocean that lies at least 4.5 km below sea level
  208. Abyssal Hills
    Relatively small topographic features of a dominantly flat, deep-ocean floor, commonly 50-250 m in height and a few kilometers in width. They are most typical of the Pacific Ocean floor at depths of 3000-6000 m
  209. What is the deepest point in the earth's ocean?
    Challenger Deep in the Marina Trench
  210. How deep is the Challenger Deep?
    11000 meters
  211. Who went down in the challenger deep?
    Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard
  212. How deep did Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard go?
    10,915 m
  213. How long was their time underwater and how long were they on the bottom?
    • 9 hours
    • 20 min
  214. What are three big geologic plates
    • Pacific
    • African
    • North American
  215. Where do most earthquakes happen?
    Along plate lines
  216. How fast do plates move on average?
    2-12 cm
  217. What movements are caused by plate techtonics?
    • 1. Divergent
    • 2. Convergent
    • 3. Transform
  218. Divergent Plate Boundaries
    boundries between plates moving apart
  219. example of divergent plate boundary
  220. What is the techtonic process of a divergent plat boundary
    sea floor spreading, new sea floor created
  221. What crust interacts in a divergent plate boundary
    oceanic to oceanic crust
  222. What does a faster spreading divergent plate boundry look like
    broader, less rugged
  223. What are earthquakes relationship to divergent plate boundaries
    amount of energy released is related to spreading rate

    Faster spread - less energy relased in each earthquake
  224. where does the mid-atlantic ridge come onland
  225. What is a divergent plate boundrary on land called?
    continental rifting
  226. convergent plate boundary
    regions where plates are pushing together

    buckling and shortening
  227. What are the three types of convergent plate boundaries
    • 1. oceanic-continental
    • 2. oceanic-oceanic
    • 3. continental-continental
  228. What is an example of oceanic-continetal convergent plate boundary and what happens?
    • Andes
    • Subduction
    • old sea floor destroyed
  229. What is an example of oceanic-oceanic convergent plate boundary and what happens
    • Aleutian Islands - Island arc formation and trenchs
    • subduction
    • old sea floor destroyed
  230. What is an an example and what happens at continental-continental convergent plate boundary
    • The Himalayas
    • Collision
    • sea floor not created or destoryed
  231. transform plate boundries
    rub sideways
  232. What is an example of a transform plate boundary and what does it do?
    • San andreas Fault
    • transform faulting
    • sea floor not created or destoryed
  233. What are the three types of transform plate boundaries
    • Continental-continental
    • Oceanic-contiental
    • oceanic-oceanic
  234. Example of a place that there is no plate movement, but geologic activity
    • Hawaii
    • don't know why
    • certain areas in mantle get hot areas - can come all the way to surface
  235. Wilson Cycle
    • ocean formed
    • 1. continent rift
    • 2. sea floor created
    • 3. expand
    • 4. subducting
    • 5. sea smaller
    • 6. collision

  236. Solar energy
    the sun is the primary force of energy on earth
  237. What drives the circulation of the atmosphere and the ocean and is the source of energy for almost all living organisms?
    solar energy
  238. elements in atmosphere
    • N
    • O
    • Ar
    • CO2
    • All others
  239. How much N is in the atmosphere
  240. How much o is in the atmosphere?
  241. How much Ar is in the atmpshere
  242. How much carbon dioxide is in the atmosphere an dhow much is is it increasing and how much in Aug 2010
    • .039%
    • +.5%/year
    • 388ppm
  243. Who came up with the greenhouse effect and when\
    • Fourier
    • 1827
  244. What is the difference of sunlight if the earth was flat vs. round
    • flat- sun come in fairly easilya nd evenly
    • round- different areas getting less sunlight, start to bend
  245. what is the tilt of the earth
    23.5 degree
  246. Albedo
    the fraction of incident electromagnetic radiation reflected by a surface
  247. dark
    • absorb
    • low abedo
    • forest and ocean
  248. light
    • reflect
    • high albedo
    • ice caps and clouds
  249. How does albedo help melt the ice caps
    • pools of water absorb
    • then melt more and absorb more
    • melt and absorb
  250. is heat transported
    atmoshpereic and oceanic circulation
  251. convection cell
    • warm air rises
    • cold air falls
  252. Air holding water vapor
    • cool air cannot hold much water vapor so typically dry
    • warm air can hold more water vapor so typically moist
  253. How does water vapor effect density
    water vapor decreases the density of air
  254. Pressure, air, and water vapor
    • a column of cool, dense air caused high pressure at the surface - sinking air
    • a column of warm less dense air causes low pressure at the surface - rising air
  255. Where is there the most intense radiation
    at the equator - warm air
  256. What are the three convection cells and what are their latitudes?
    • Hadley Cell 0-30
    • Ferrel Cell 30-60
    • Polar Cell 60-90
  257. What to these convection cells on the earth create?
    wind patterns
  258. What is another name for the equator?
  259. what is a name for 30 degress latitude
    horse latitude
  260. What winds are between the doldrums and the horse latitudes
    NE and SE trade winds
  261. What winds are between 30-60 degrees latitude
  262. What winds are between the 60 and 90 latitude
    polar easterlies
  263. What is global climate driven by *
    • 1. differential heating of the tropics - amount of radiation over larger surface area at poles, radiation travels through more atmopshere at poles
    • 2. Heat redistribution - atmosphere circulation (winds) - ocean curents
    • 3. change in air density - pressure gradiant
    • 4. Coriolis effect
  264. Latitude
  265. Longitude
  266. Coriolis
    the effect of the rotation of the earth on the direction of the wind
  267. Which way does the earth spin
    East to west
  268. How fast does the earth spin at the equator and at 30 degrees
    • 16000 km/hour
    • 800 km/hour
  269. Looking from the north pole
    • earth is rotating counterclockwishe
    • shift to the right
  270. looking fromt he south pole
    • the earth is rotating clockwise
    • shift to the left
  271. ITCZ
    Intertropical convergence Zone
  272. What is the intertropical convergence zone
    • clouds collect here
    • shifts depending on what time of year - summer up, winter down
  273. weather
    day-to-day state of the atmosphere and is short term (min-weeks) variation
  274. climate
    statistical weather information that describes the variation of weather at a given place for a specified interval (usually over 30 years), statistics of weather extreem
  275. air spins counter clockwishe
    • cyclonic flow
    • low pressure
    • storm
  276. air spins clockwise
    • anti-cydonic flow
    • high pressure
    • dry
  277. hurricanes
    atlantic and e. pacific
  278. typhoon
    w pacific
  279. cyclone
    indian and austrialia
  280. What is the scale which hurciannes are graded on
    • Saffir-simpson
    • 1-5
  281. what do you need for a hurricane
    • warm water
    • wind
    • distance from the equator to get that spin
  282. Two types of ocean currents
    • 1. wind driven
    • 2. density drive
  283. wind driven ocean curents
    • surface curents
    • dwon to ~ 1 km
    • 10 %
    • moves water horizontally
  284. density (gravity) driven ocean currents
    • moves water vertically
    • 90%
    • responsible for mixing water masses
  285. How do we measure wind induced surface curents
    • basic current meters
    • Satellites - TOPEX/Poseidon radar - ocean surface dynamic
  286. Why do surface currents develop?
    friction between wind and water
  287. How much of winds energy is transfere to the ocean
  288. Gyre
    any large system of rotating ocean currents particurally those involved with large wind movements
  289. 5 large gyres
    • 1. North Atlantic
    • 2. South Atlantic
    • 3. Indian
    • 4. North Pacific
    • 5. South Pacific
  290. Subtropical gyres are made of 4 main current types
    • 1. equatorial
    • 2. western boundary
    • 3. northern or southern boundary
    • 4. eastren boundary
  291. Western boundary currents
    • ex: kurcitio and gulf stream
    • narrow <100 km
    • deep - up to 2 km
    • fast - hundreds of km/day
    • moving warm water to pole
  292. Eastren Boundry
    • Wide >1000 km
    • shallow - .5 km
    • slow - 10s of km/day
    • move cool water to equator
  293. Ekman spiral
    • leads to ekman transport of water
    • 90 degrees to the wind that forces motion
    • drives upwelling
  294. What are two other names for deep water circulation
    • termohailine circulation
    • abyssal circulation
  295. What is density a function of
    tempurature and salinity
  296. ARGO
    • deep currents
    • have ballast and sink
    • bomb around in current - send back info to sattelite
    • 3149 out right now
  297. Example tracers
    • Tritium
    • CFC's
    • Oxygen
  298. what is the driving mechanism for surculation in the deep ocean
  299. what is thermohaline ciruclation driven by
    tempurature and salineity
  300. When water evaporates what happens to salinity
    goes up
  301. virtical startification
    important in dynamics and bio heat transport
  302. Importance of deep ocean currents
    • virtical stratification
    • heat transport
    • it provides O to deep ocean
    • stores anthropogenic carbon dioxide
  303. How far does the sun heat the water
    100 m
  304. How are denisty and temp related on a graph
  305. sources of deep ocean water in low latitude
    strong thermocline stratived
  306. sources of deep ocean water in high latitude
    vertically well mixed
  307. What speed are deep ocean curents
  308. North Atlantic deep water formation
    • evaporation - Temp drops, Salinity rises
    • Ice formation - Salinity rises by brine injection
  309. Pacific deep water formation
    no deep water formation - salinity uniform
  310. Who came up with the ocean conveyor belt
    wally broecker
  311. Who decided it was more complicated than a simple conveyor belt
    schmitz 1995
  312. Thremohaline circulation and climate change
    • haline forcing is affect by excess rain, runoff on ice melt
    • -slowdown or shutdown conver belt
  313. Younger Drayas
    conver belt disruped
  314. Waves are moving
  315. What are most waves?
    wind driven
  316. what is a wind driven wave
    moving energy along ocean/air interface
  317. Types of waves
    • air/ocean interface
    • air air interface
    • splace waves
    • seismic sea wave or tsunami
    • wake
  318. tides
    gravitational attraction among moon, sun, and earth
  319. still water level
    the height of the water without any waves
  320. Wave height
    • H
    • distance between crest and trough
  321. trough
    bottom of the wave
  322. crest
    top of the wave
  323. wave length
    • L
    • from crest to crest
  324. wave period
    • T
    • the time it takes for a full wavelength to pass a fixed position
  325. wave frequence
    • f
    • 1/T
  326. What moves in waves
    • energy
    • not water mass
  327. wave motion
    • waves transmit energy
    • cyclic motion of particles in the ocean
  328. waves may move
    • up and down
    • back and forth
    • around and around
  329. longitudinal waves
    • push pull
    • slinky
  330. transverse waves
    • side to side
    • string to doorknob - flick it
  331. transverse and longitudinal waves make...
    orbital waves
  332. orbital waves
    rubber duck bobbing up and down, but makes a full circle
  333. wave base
    • equal to 1/2 the wave length (at SWL) or L/2
    • how deep orbital motion of wave felt
  334. what controls the depth of the wave base
    • wavelength
    • longer the wave the deeper the wave base
  335. We describe waves in realtion to the depth of the water and their wavelength
    • deepwater wave
    • shallow wave
    • transitional wave
  336. deep water waves
    • water depth is greater than the wave base
    • >L/2
  337. Shallow water waves - long wave
    water depth is <L/20
  338. Deeper the water
    the faster the shallow waves move
  339. transitional waves
    • charactersitics of booth deep and shallow water waves
    • L/20 < depth < L/2
  340. How do you build a big wave
    • wind speed
    • duration
    • fetch
  341. duration
    how long wind blows in one direction
  342. fetch
    distance it blows in one dicrection
  343. wave development
    different size waves based on wind speed, duration, and fetch
  344. wave steepnes
    • wave height/wave length
    • H/L
  345. 1/7 Rule
    • ration of H to L exceeds 1/7 - the wave breaks
    • max wave height
  346. longest wind driven waves are where?
  347. Wave development
    • speed
    • duration
    • fetch
  348. Wave speed
    • the rate at which the wave travels
    • L/T
  349. celerity
    wave seeped used only in relation to waves where no mass is moved
  350. three types of waves
    • deep water waes
    • shallow water waves
    • transitional waves
  351. deep water waves
    moves at speeds controlled by wavelength
  352. shallow water waves
    moves at speeds controlled by water depth
  353. transitional waves
    in between deep water waves and shallow water waves
  354. Beaufort wind scale and the state of the ocean
    • 0 - sea like a mirror
    • up force - up wind
    • 12 - hurricane
  355. wave interference patterns
    • constructive
    • destructive
    • mixed
  356. constructive interference
    • same pattern
    • larger wave
  357. destructive interference
    • out of phase
    • flat
  358. mixed interference
    • in and out of phase
    • wierd
  359. Freak wave, rogue waves, extreem waves
    out of nowhere - not the right conditions
  360. in open ocean 1 in 23 waves
    2 x as high
  361. in open ocean 1 in 1175 waves will be
    3x as high
  362. in open ocean 1 in 300,000 waves will be
    4x as high
  363. truly big waves are 1 in
    several billion
  364. Why are there freak waves?
    • constructive interference
    • mixing current energy
    • reationship with land

    Don't really know
  365. Three catagories of freak waves
    • walls of water
    • 3 sisters
    • single giant storm waves
  366. max wave height
    • reliable messurement
    • 34 m or 112 ft - 11 story building
  367. The draupner wave
    • single giant
    • New years day 1995 - confirmed exhistance of freak waves
  368. Swell
    • uniform symmetrical waves that travel outward from storm area
    • long crests
  369. do longer or shorter wavelength waves travel faster
    longer wavelenght - outdistance other waves
  370. wave train
    group of waves with similar characteristics
  371. wave dispersion
    sorting waves by their wavelengths
  372. Ground swell vs. wind swell
    ground swell is in the deep ocean , idstant stor or earthquake, touch the ground, farther distance, larger
  373. As waves approach shore
    • down wave speed
    • down wavelength
    • up wave height
    • up wave steepness
    • wave break
  374. breakers in surf zone
    • top of the wave crashes over on itself
    • wave form not sustained
    • breakers associated with slope of sea floor
  375. spilling breakers
    • water slides down front of slope wave
    • gently sloping sea floor
  376. Plunging breakers
    • curling crest
    • moderately sloping sea floor
    • wave energy expended over shorter distance
    • best for board surfers
  377. surging breakers
    • breakers on shore
    • steepest sea floor
    • energy spread over shortest distance
    • best for body surfing
  378. why is there better surfing on west coast than the east
    • longer duration and fetch
    • steeper slopes
    • wind blows toward the shore
  379. Tsunami or seismic sea wave
    • release of energy
    • earthquake, landslide, volcanic erruption
    • long wave length - shallow water wave
    • speed proportional to water depth - very fast in open ocean
    • sea level can rise up to 40 m
    • most occur in Pacific ocean
Card Set
exam 1