1. Structuralism
    early perspective in psychology associated with Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener, in which the focus of study is the structure or basic elements of the mind
  2. functionalism
    early perspective in psycology associated with William James, in which the focus of study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live,work, and play
  3. Objective introspection
    the process of examining and measuring ones own thoughts and mental activities
  4. Gestalt psychology
    early perspective in psychology focusing on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures
  5. Receptor sites
    holes in the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands, which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters
  6. Inhibitory synapse
    synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to stop firing
  7. excitatory synapse
    synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to fire
  8. Agonist
    chemical substances that mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter no the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell
  9. Antagonist
    chemical substances that block or reduce a cell's response to the action of other chemicals ore neurotransmitters
  10. Central Nervous system
    part of the nervous system that contains the brain and the spinal chord
  11. Peripheral nervous system
    all nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal chord but that run through the body itself
  12. Autonomic Nervous system
    division of the PNS consisting of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs and glands
  13. Somatic Nervous system
    division of the pns consisting of nerves that carry info from the senses to the CNS, and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body
  14. Sympathetic
    (fight of flight) part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful situations and bodily arousal
  15. parasympathetic
    pat of the ANS that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for the day to day functioning of the organs and glands
  16. Association areas
    areas within each lobe of the cortex responsible for the coordination, and interpretation of info, as well as higher mental processing
  17. top down processing
    the use of pre-existing knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole
  18. bottom up processing
    the analysis of the smaller features to build up to a complete perception
  19. Gestalt Principles
    • figure ground
    • proximity
    • similarity
    • contiguity
  20. figure ground
    the tendency to perceive objects or figures as existing on a background
  21. proximity
    tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping~~~ physical or geographical nearness
  22. similarity
    tendency to perceive things that look similar to each other as part of the same group
  23. contiguity
    the tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as bing related
  24. dominant gene
    referring to a gene that actively controls the expression of a trait
  25. recessive gene
    a gene that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical gene
  26. teratogen
    any factor that causes a birth defect
  27. scaffolding
    process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner become more capable
  28. zone of proximal development
    Vygotskys concept of the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a teacher
  29. personal fable
    type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm
  30. Restorative Theory
    theory of sleep proposing that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage
  31. adaptive theory
    theory of sleep proposing that animals and humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid preditors by sleeping when predators are most active
  32. REM rebound
    increased amounts of REM sleep after being deprived of REM sleep on earlier nights
  33. REM paralysis
    the inability of the voluntary muscles to move during REM sleep
  34. permissive indulgent parenting
    parents are so involved in children that children are allowed to behave without set limits
  35. permissive neglectful
    parents are uninvolved with child or childs behavior
  36. authoritative parenting
    style of parenting in which parents combine warmth and affection with firm limits on a childs behavior
  37. Authoritarian parenting
    parents is rigid and overly strict, showing little warmth to the child
Card Set
psych test 1