Counseling Theories

  1. Human Nature
    our behavior is determined by the unconscious motivations and biological drives that developed within the first 6yrs of life.
  2. Structure of Personality ID
    • biologically driven, child-like
    • pleasure principle
  3. Structure of Personality Superego
    • Socially driven
    • morals, standards, right vs wrong
  4. Structure of Personality Ego
    • Psychologically driven
    • in charge, negotiates between id and superego
    • reality principle
  5. The unconscious
    • consciousness is only the surface of the mind
    • unconscious reveals itself in:
    • dreams
    • slips of the tongue
    • free association
    • posthypnotic suggestion
  6. Ego defense
    • protects the ego from anxiety
    • healthy except when overused
  7. Repression
    threatening or painful thoughts and feelings are excluded from awareness
  8. Denial
    closing ones eyes to the existence of a threatening aspect of reality, person is aware.
  9. Reaction Formation
    actively expressing the opposite impulse when confronted with a threatening impulse
  10. Projection
    • Attributing to others one's own unacceptable desires and impulses.
    • lustful, agressive impulses are seen as being possessed by "those people out there, but not by me"
  11. Displacement
    • directing energy toward another object or person when the original object or person is inaccessible
    • discharging impulses onto a safer target
  12. Rationalization
    manufacturing good reasons to explain away a bruised ego
  13. Sublimation
    diverting sexual or aggressive energy into other channels
  14. Regression
    going back to an earlier phase of development when there were fewer demands
  15. Introjection
    taking in and swallowing the values and standards of others
  16. Identification
    identifying with successful causes, organizations, or people in the hope that you will be perceived as worthwhile
  17. Compensation
    masking perceived weaknesses or developing certain positive traits to make up for limitations
  18. Psychosexual and Psychosocial Development
    • Psychosexual (Freud)
    • focus on childhood (0-6yrs)
    • biological development
  19. Psychosocial
    • Erickson
    • development throughout lifetime
  20. Stages of Development Psychosexual

  21. Oral (0-1)
    Forming secure relationships
  22. Anal (1-3)
    expressing negative feelings
  23. Phallic (3-6)
    attitudes toward sexuality
  24. Latency (6-12)
    Genital (12-18)
    Genital (18-35)
    Gential (35-60)
  25. Stages of Development Psychosocial

    Ego psychology
  26. (0-1) Trust vs Mistrust
  27. (1-3) Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt
  28. (3-6) Initiative vs Guilt
  29. (6-12) Industry vs Inferiority
  30. (12-18) Identity vs Role Confusion
  31. (18-35) Intimacy vs isolation
  32. (35-60) Generativity vs Stagnation
  33. (60+) Integrity vs Despair
  34. Psychoanalytic Theory Structure
    • long term
    • time intensive
  35. Goals
    • make the unconscious, conscious (insight)
    • strengthen ego to reduce defense mechanisms
  36. Therapist (authority figure)
    • blank screen for projection
    • listens to content to make connections
    • interpretation
  37. Client
    • talks openly
    • free association
    • dream analysis
  38. Theraputic Techniques Therapist is warm, nurturing
  39. Maintaining the analytic framework
    recreating the trusting relationship from infancy
  40. Free Association
    • talk without inhibition
    • reveal unconscious
  41. Interpretation
    dreams, free association, etc
  42. Dream analysis
    manifest vs latent content
  43. Analysis of resistance
    ego defends itself from anxiety
  44. Analysis of transference
    primary care giver projected onto therapist
  45. Neo- Freudian changes in therapy
    • replaced authoritarian relationship with egalitarian model
    • focus on the complex interplay b/t the client and therapist
    • limited goals, not change whole personality
    • focus on later life development
    • fewer sessions
    • therapist offers support
    • focus on real world
  46. Neo-Freudians
    Eg. Anna Freud, Jung, Erickson
  47. Object relations
    • explores internal unconscious internalizations of others
    • replay patterns based on early attachment style
  48. Self-psychology
    how we use relationships to develop our view of ourselves
  49. General Contributions of Freudians and Neo-Freudians
    • the unconscious
    • transference
    • resistance
    • value of therapeutic alliance
    • early childhood patterns replay themselves
    • defense mechanisms
  50. Limitations
    • time commitment and expense
    • not concrete, short term
    • better for insightful, educated clients
    • feminist critque
Card Set
Counseling Theories
Chapter 4. Psychoanalytic Theory