1. scientific method
    • -ask a question
    • -do background research
    • -construct hypothesis
    • -test with experiment
    • -analyze results and draw conclusions
    • -either report or construct another hypothesis
  2. theory
    a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws, logical inferences and tested hypothesis

    never say going to happen
  3. 6 elements that are the major constituentes of living tissue
    • C
    • H
    • O
    • N
    • P
    • S
  4. How much of the bioshere do CHONPS make up?
  5. biosphere
    zone of life on earth

    global sum of all ecosystem
  6. ecosystem

    components of a system
  7. atomic number
    number of protons
  8. atomic weight
    average mass of atoms of an element, calcuated using the relative abundance of isotopes in a naturally occuring
  9. isotope *
    atoms with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons
  10. first elements made
    H and He
  11. When was the big bang
    between 13-18 bya
  12. What is the big bang making H and He called?
  13. how fast were H and He formed?
    100-300 sec
  14. What happened 1 billion years after the big bang?
    Stars and hevier elements formed
  15. what was the stars forming 1 billion years after the big bang called?
    stellar nucleosynthesis
  16. How do you create heavier elements?
    up tempurature and pressure

    combine He's
  17. Who came up with the Nebular hypothosis
    Emanuel Swedenborg
  18. What is the Nebular Hypothosis called today
    solar nebular disk
  19. The Nebular Hypothosis
    Explosion - lots of gas and particles

    light on the outside/heavy and dense on inside

    formation of protoplanets = mashed together

    solar system - dense planets close and gas planets far out
  20. When was earth formed?
    4.6 bya
  21. How much bigger was the earth when it was formed?
    1000 x
  22. what was the earth made of when formed?
    mostly H and He
  23. How did the earth get to the size it is now?
    heavier elements pulled into center

    H and He blown away by solar wind
  24. What was the earth like when formed
    hot and molten
  25. What does our solar system look like?
    8 planets

    medium sized star
  26. How many stars in the milky way galaxy?
  27. How many galaxies?
  28. Which direction are most of the galaxies moving?
    away from the milky way
  29. Where are the rocky planets?
    on the inside
  30. where are the gas giants?
    on the outside
  31. Density stratification
    crust forms
  32. What is density?
    mass per unit volume ex: g/cm3
  33. physical earth layers
    • -crust
    • -ocean
    • -lithosphere
    • -asthenosphere
    • -mesosphere
    • -outer core - liquid
    • -inner core - soild
  34. chemical earth layers
    • -crust
    • -ocean
    • -mantle
    • -core
  35. origin of the earth's atmosphere
    partial melting resulted in outgasing
  36. when was the atmosphere created?
    40 bya
  37. What is outgassing
    similar to gases emitted by a volcanoe

    • mainly water vapors
    • CO2 H
    • other gases
  38. Where did the ocean come from?
    • 1. outgasing - water vapor release, condensed as rain, accumulate, 4 bya, mostly from here
    • 2. comets - ice
  39. planet water
    -70.8% covered by water

    • -97% in seawater in oceans and seas
    • -2% freshwater lakes and rivers
    • -1% ice and snow
    • .00057% atmospheric water
  40. When was the moon formed?
    4.5 bya
  41. how was the moon formed
    meteor collision


  42. How much of the earth is covered by water?
  43. ion
    an atom or molecule where the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net overall negative or positive charge
  44. types of bonds
    • ionic
    • covalent
    • hydrogen
  45. ionic bond
    electrons gained or lost
  46. covalent bond
    electrons shared
  47. hydrogen bond
    intermolecular bond of H with an electronegative atom
  48. cation
  49. anion
  50. What is the angle between the two H+ in water?
    105 degrees
  51. what is the bond in a water molecule?
  52. polarity
    negative and positive ends
  53. bonding between water molecules
  54. which is stronger hydrogen or covalent bond?
  55. cohesion
    makes beading
  56. what is responsible for water surface tension
    Hydrogen bonds
  57. adhesion
    makes beads stay in place

    H bonding causes
  58. How much water in humans
  59. how much water in blood
  60. how much water in plants?
  61. how much water in jellyfish?
  62. water is the universal solvent
    it can dissolved nearly everything
  63. how do water molecules disolve things?
    water molecules can fit around sodium

    hydrated molecule
  64. salinity
    total amount of solid material dissolves in water (not including disolved organic substances) it is the ration of the mass of the disolved stubstances to the mass of the water sample

    it does not include fine particles
  65. how do we express salinity?
    parts per thousand

  66. what are over 1/2 of the salts in the ocean
  67. how do we measure salinity
    principle of constant proportion
  68. principle of constant proportion
    the major dissolved constituents responsible for the salinity of seawater occur nearly everywhere in the ocean in exact same proportions, regardless of saleinty
  69. salinity=
    1.80655 x chlorinity
  70. what are the states of matter?
    • liquid
    • solid
    • gas
  71. how do change matter from one state to another?
    add or remove heat
  72. Heat comes from...
    • -friction
    • -burning
    • -chemical reaction
    • -radioactive decay
  73. calorie
    the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram by 1 degree C
  74. water as a gas
    water vapor
  75. water as a solid
  76. water as a liquid
  77. solid to liquid
  78. liquid to gas
    • vaporization
    • evaporation
    • boiling
  79. gas to solid
  80. solid to gas
  81. gas to liquid
  82. liquid to solid
Card Set
exam 1