1. Neuron:
    An individual nerve cell.
  2. Biopsychology:
    The study of how biological processes, especially activity in the brain and nervous system, relate to behavior.
  3. Dendrites:
    Neuron fibers that receive incoming messages.
  4. Soma:
    The main body of a beuron or other cell.
  5. Axon:
    Fiber that carries information away from the cell body of a neuron.
  6. Axon terminals:
    Branching fibers at the ends of axons.
  7. Ion:
    An electrically charged molecule.
  8. Resting Potential:
    The electrical charge of a neuron at rest.
  9. Threshold:
    The point at which a nerve impulse is triggered.
  10. Action potential:
    The nerve impulse.
  11. Ion channels:
    Channels through the axon membrane.
  12. All-or-nothing event
    An event that happens completely, or not at all.
  13. Synapse:
    The microscopic space between two neurons, over which messages pass.
  14. Neurotransmitter:
    Any chemical released by a neuron that alters activity in other neurons.
  15. Receptor sites:
    Areas on the surface of neurons and other cells that are sensitive to neurotransmitters or hormones.
  16. Acetylcholine:
    The neurotransmitter released by neurons to activate muscles.
  17. Curare:
    A drug that competes with acetylcholine, causing paralsis.
  18. Neuropeptides:
    Brain chemicals that regulate the activity of neurons.
  19. Enkephalins:
    Opiate-like brain chemicals that regulate reactions to pain and stress.
  20. Endorphins:
    Chemicals that are similar in structure and pain-killing effect to opiate drugs such as morphine.
  21. Nerve:
    A bundle of neuron fibers.
  22. Myelin:
    A fatty layer coating some axons.
  23. Neurilemma:
    A layer of cells that encases many axons.
  24. Central Nervous System (CNS):
    The Brain and Spinal chord.
  25. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS):
    All parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal chord.
  26. Somatic system:
    The system of nerves linking the spinal chord with the body and sense organs.
  27. Autonomic system:
    The system of nerves carrying information to and from the internal organs and glands.
  28. Sympathetic branch:
    A branch of the ANS that arouses the body.
  29. Parasympathetic branch:
    A branch of the ANS that quiets the body.
  30. White matter:
    Areas that appear white because of the presence of myelin.
  31. Spinal nerves:
    Major nerves that carry sensory and motor messages in and out of the spinal chord.
  32. Cranial nerves:
    Major nerves that leave the brain without passing through the spinal chord.
  33. Reflex arc:
    The simplest behavior, in which a stimulus provokes an automatic response.
  34. Sensory neuron:
    A nerve cell that carries information from the senses toward CNS.
  35. Connector neuron:
    A nerve cell that serves as a link between two others.
  36. Motor neuron:
    A nerve cell that carries motor commands from the CNS to muscles and glands.
  37. Effector cells:
    Cells in muscles and glands that are capable of producing come type of response.
  38. Clinical study:
    An intensive investigation of the behavior of a single person, especially one suffering from some injury, disease, or disorder.
  39. Ablation:
    Surgical removal of tissue.
  40. Electrode:
    Any device (such as wire, needle, or metal plate) used to electrically stimulate nerve tissure or to record its activity.
  41. Deep lesioning:
    Removal of tissure within the brain by use of an electrode.
  42. Electrical stimulation of the brain:
    Direct electrical stimulation and activation of brain tissue.
  43. Micro-electrode:
    An electrode small enough to record the activity of a single neuron.
  44. Electroencephalography:
    Technique to measure waves of electrical activity produced by the brain.
  45. Electroencephalograph (EEG):
    A device that detects, amplifies, and records electrical activity in the brain.
  46. Computed tomographic (CT) scanning:
    A computer-enhanced three- dimensional representation of the brain or body, based on the body's response to a magnetic field.
  47. Magnetic Resonance Imaging:
    A computer-enhanced three dimensional representation of the brain or body, based on the body's response to a magnetic field.
  48. Functional MRI:
    Magnetic resonance imaging that records brain activity.
  49. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan:
    A computer-generated image of brain activity, based on glucose consumption in the brain.
Card Set
Chapter 3 The Brain, Biology, and Behavior.