PR History

  1. What are the Six Major PR Eras?
    • Seedbed Era (1900-1917)/World War I (1917-1919)
    • The Booming 20s (1919-1929)
    • The FDR Era (1930-1945)
    • Post War (1945-1965)
    • Global Information Society (1965-today
  2. Pre-Seedbed Era (1865-1900) is characterized by?
    • characterized by
    • Rapid industrial growth
    • Monopolies
    • “Public be damned” attitude
    • Protect company at all cost
    • Guard release of information
    • Pit management against employees
  3. Pioneered corporate public relations with A&T
    Theodore N. Vail
  4. Who created first corporate PR department?
    George Westinghouse
  5. Who excelled at creating events and using press to mold opinion?
    Amos Kendall
  6. Who understood the necessity for improving relationships between corporations and public?
    Theodore N. Vail
  7. Considered by some first presidential press secretary?
    Amos Kendall
  8. "A sucker is born every minute."
    P,T. Barnum
  9. "Founder of modern PR"
    Ivy Ledbetter Lee
  10. First president to exploit news media as a new powerful tool of presidential leadership.
    Theodore Roosevelt
  11. "First public relations counsel"
    Ivy Ledbetter Lee
  12. Press agent. Used media to drum up publicity. *Ethically challenged*
    P.T. Barnum
  13. US Postmaster General under Jackson and Van Buren
    Amos Kendall
  14. Created "Declaration of Principles" issued to journalists
    - supply accurate news to press promptly and ensure company's work is open and transparent.
    Ivy Ledbetter Lee
  15. Among first to recognize publicity needs to be supported by good works
    Ivy Ledbetter Lee
  16. World War 1 (1917- 1919)
    • Bernays Period: Public be informed.
    • The war to end all wars.
    • PR Trend: Organized promotion. Promote patriotism. Use interest groups.
    • Key PR figure: George Creel
  17. What is the Publicity Bureau?
    • US’s first publicity agency and forerunner of modern PR firm
    • established in Boston in 1900
    • Used tools of fact-finding, publicity and personal contacts to saturate media with railroad propaganda
    • Harvard College was its most prestigious client
  18. Who is the chairman of WWI Committee on Public Information?
    George Creel
  19. Public relations icon: Coined "public relations counsel" term
    Edward Bernays
  20. AT&T VP of Public Relations, 1927-1946
    Arthur Page
  21. Used publicity to mobilize public
    George Creel
  22. Wrote the first PR book: Crystallizing Public Opinion
    Edward Bernays
  23. First PR pro to serve on a corporate board of directors
    Arthur Page
  24. Started "Four Minutemen" spokespersons form key opinion leader groups
    George Creel
  25. Taught first PR course at New York University
    Edward Bernays
  26. Helped set standard for corporate PR as a management function
    Arthur Page
  27. Creel Committee secured media space to promote Liberty Bond investment
    George Creel
  28. First to call himself PR professional
    Edward Bernays
  29. 'company's performance would be determined by its public reputation
    Arthur Page
  30. The Booming 20s (1919-1929)
    • Bernays Period: Mutual understanding
    • PR Trend: Promoting products. WWI publicity techniques used for social science.
    • Key PR figures: Edward Bernays: Crystallizing Public Opinion ‘23; Propaganda ’28Arthur Page: Performance = Reputation
  31. The FCR Era (1930-1945)
    • Bernays Period: Social responsibility, mass publicity. Depression. WWII.
    • PR Trend: Mass media.
    • Key PR figures:Louis McHenry Howe: responsible performance; persuasive publicityElmer Davis: Office of War Info.FDR: “Fireside Chats”
  32. Nephew of Sigmund Freud
    Used crowd psychology techniques to persuade audiences his clients’ messages supported their values.
    Staged media events and used opinion leaders to sway opinion
    Edward Bernays
  33. Louis McHenry Howe
    • PR adviser to FDR until he died
    • Helped FDR develop concept of “Fireside Chats”
    • Recognized that mutually beneficial public relationships could be built by coupling responsible performance with persuasive publicity
  34. Elmer Davis
    • Director of WWII Office of War Information
    • Pioneered widespread use of radio, Hollywood and media to publicize war effort
  35. Post War (1945-1965)
    • Bernays Period: Professionalism. Post-war service economy, consumerism
    • PR Trend: Credibility, associations form (PRSA), Code of Ethics written, College curricula develop, TV
    • Key PR Figures:Rex Harlow: PRSA
  36. Global Information Society (1965-today)
    • Bernays Period: Mutual adjustment
    • PR Trend: Accommodation. Systems Theory. Management by Objective. Functional vs. Functionary Approach. Technology
    • Key PR figure:Marshall McLuhan: Canadian educator, understanding media, “global village,” “the medium is the message.”
  37. Rex Harlow
    • “Founder of public relations research
    • ”Probably first full-time PR educator
    • Founded the American Counsel on Public Relations
    • -Through mergers of other organizations ultimately became PRSA in 1947
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PR History