1. simple diffusion
    the passing of things inbetween the cells of the membrane and doesn't require energy
  2. passive diffusion
    • is the movement of very small uncharged molecules down an electrochemical gradient to equilibrium
    • no energy input
  3. active diffusion
    against an electrochemical gradient and requires an input of energy to work
  4. uniport system
    moves one type of molecule in or out of the cell
  5. symport
    moves 2 molecules in the same direction
  6. antiport system
    moves 2 molecules in opposite directions
  7. carrier mediated transport
    transport proteins in the plasma membrane that carry solutes from one side of the membrane to the other
  8. Specificity of carrier mediated transport
    • binding to a specific receptor
    • carriers do not chemically change what they are moving
  9. 2 types of carrier mediated transports
    • facilitated diffusion
    • active transport
  10. facilitated diffusion
    • transport of solute through a membrane down its concentration gradient and does not comsume ATP
    • solute attaches to one end, passed through and comes out other end
  11. Active transport
    transport of solute through a membrane up its concentration gradient and requires ATP
  12. Example of active transport
    sodium potassium pump
  13. Sodium Potassium pump
    • keeps the K concentration high in the cell
    • 3 Na out
    • 2 K in
  14. What are the functions of the sodium potassium pump
    • regulate cell volume
    • heat production
  15. Ion channels
    • transmember proteins that are very selective for a specific ion
    • allow ions to flow in or out of cell
  16. Vesicular transport
    • processes that move large particles or many molecules in or out of the cell
    • motor proteins consume ATP
  17. Endocytosis
    brings material into the cell and has 2 forms
  18. 3 types of endocytosis
    • phagocytosis
    • pinocytosis
    • receptor mediated endocytosis
  19. phagocytosis
    • cell eating
    • the cell engulfs large particles
  20. pintocytosis
    • cell drinking
    • the cell takes in droplets of ECF with particles in it
  21. receptor mediated endocytosis
    particles bind to specific receptors on the plasma membrane
  22. exocytosis
    discharging of material from the cell
  23. Receptor mediated endocytosis
    • is important in the delivery of large drug molecules
    • Clathrin coated vesicle removes LDL (bad cholesterol) from the blood
  24. Transcytosis
    • the transport of material across he cell by capturing it on one side and releasing it on ther other
    • insulin
  25. exocytosis
    replaces the plasma membrane that was removed by endocytosis
  26. neural communication
    neurotransmitter are released at synptic junctions from nerve cells
  27. endocrine communication
    hormone and growth factors reach cells via blood
  28. paracrine communication
    products of cells diffuse into ECF and effect neighboring cells
  29. autocrine communication
    cells secrete chemical messengers that bind to receptors on the same cell that is secreted the messenger
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