Cell Organelles

  1. Contractile Vacuole
    Type: Protists

    Structure: Like a sun-shaped....

    • Function: Expands and contracts to remove excess of water:
    • distole: H2O in
    • systole: H2O out
  2. Mitochondria
    Type: Animal, plant, protists, fungi

    Structure: DNA, ribosomes, cristae, matrix, ATP synthesis particles.

    Function: Generate ATP: convert unusable energy for cell
  3. Chloroplast
    Type: Plant, protist

    Structure: Outer/inner membranes, stroma (syrup), thylakoid (single), granum (stacked).

    Funcition: Photosynthesis occurs here. Produces glucose
  4. Peroxisome
    Type: All Eukaryotic

    Structure: Single membrane, no DNA, oxidative enzymes; located in liver and kidney cells.

    Function: Detox alcohol/bile acid formation, use O2 to break down fats; converts H2O2 to H2O (stabalizes levels!)
  5. Cytoskeleton: Name 3 components
    • Microtubules (thickest)
    • Intermediate Filaments (medium)
    • Microfilaments (thinnest)
  6. Centrioles
    Type: Animal, protist

    • Function: Organize mitotic spindle and complete cytokinesis.
    • **Part of CENTROSOMES**

    Structure: 9-pointed star, containing (3 per point) microtubules.
  7. Centrosomes
    Type: Animal, plant, protist, fungi

    Structure: 2 Centrioles paired perpendicularly

    Function: Contain proteins needed to make microtubules
  8. Cilia
    Type: Animal, fungi, bacteria, some protists

    • Structure: Hairlike fibers outside of still. Microtubule based cytoskeleton, "axoneme" - proteins linked.
    • Basal body - where microtubules organize and are attatched to cell body

    Function: Motile = Movement/Move fluid to absorb nutrients; Primary = sensory (only ONE)
  9. Flagella
    Types: All/SOME plants

    Structure: " to Cilia, larger.

    Function: Move cell about. Similar to cilia.
  10. Microfilaments/Actin filaments
    Type: All Eukaryotic

    Structure: Twisted double chain of actin subunits. Linear or networks.

    Function: Structure/support of cell. Core of microvilli. Increase cell's surface area. Anchor centrosomes.
  11. Intermediate Filaments
    Type: Plant & Animal

    Structure: Protein subunits (keratins) curled into fibrous subunits/thick cables.

    Function: Positions organelles. Formation of nuclear lamina
  12. Cell Wall
    Type: Plant, Protist, Fungi, Bacteria

    Structure: Peptoglycan, cellulose, protein, hemicellulose. 2 Layers.

    Function: Turgor Pressure role, protect against pathogens, maintain cell shape, regulate diffusion of materials.
  13. Tight Junctions
    Type: Animal

    Structure: See picture

    Function: Controls what substances are allowed through the cells.
  14. Gap Junctions/Plasmodemata*
    Type: Animal

    Structure: Exterior of animal cells. Built from connexin proteins to form hemichannels. These 1/2 channels connect to form 1. Flower shaped.

    Function: Allows for passage of materials/nutrients through cells' cytoplasm: regulates transfer of sugars, amino acids, proteins.

    *Called plasmodemata in plant cells.
  15. Nucleus
    Types: All Eukaryotic

    Structure: Nuc. envelope (double membrane, with lamina), pores, nucleolis, chromatin, nucleoplasm.

    Function: Synthesizes mRNA and rRNA, replicate DNA, coordinates cell activities.
  16. Golgi Apparatus
    Type: All Eukaryotic

    Structure: Similar to SER. Cis = receives; Trans = send out, concave. **Through vesicles

    Function: Modify/package/sort macromolecules (proteins, carbs, lipids). Transport lipids, form lysosomes, finishes glycoproteins
  17. Lysosomes
    Type: Animal, plant, protist

    Structure: Membrane, hydrolyzing enzymes

    • Function: Convert macromolecules to more useful monomers, by hydration reactions. Recycle old/damaged organelles.
    • *Endo-/exo-cytosis!
  18. Central Vacuole
    Type: Plant

    Structure: Membrane-tonoplast.

    Function: Holds nutrients, waste, water. Ability of enlarging/shrinking of cell (turgor pressure). Transport of scertain solutes
  19. Ribosomes
    Type: All

    Structure: made of rRNA and protein.

    Function: site of translation via mRNA to synthesize proteins.
Card Set
Cell Organelles
Know Structure and Function of Organelle, also cell type