super quiz section 3

  1. 1401. century in which geologists favored the theory that the Earth had been cooling and contracting for centuries
    19th (USQRG:74,1,1)
  2. 1402. main evidence for the theory that the Earth had been cooling and contracting for centuries
    mountain ranges full of folded rocks (USQRG:74,1,1)
  3. 1403. three phenomena unaccounted for by the theory of the contraction of the Earth’s crust
    continental shape, continental positioning, and great rift valleys (USQRG:74,1,1)
  4. 1404. process that created great rift valleys
    stretching of the Earth’s crust (USQRG:74,1,1)
  5. 1405. process that heats Earth’s interior
    decay of radioactive elements (USQRG:74,1,2)
  6. 1406. When did geologists discover how the Earth’s interior is heated?
    beginning of the 20th century (USQRG:74,1,2)
  7. 1407. theory about changes in the Earth’s crust supported by the explanation of the process of heating the Earth’s interior
    expansion (USQRG:74,1,2)
  8. 1408. eventual result of initial cracks in the continents, according to the theory of crust expansion
    formation of oceans (USQRG:74,1,2)
  9. 1409. two continents whose coastlines’ formation are explained by the theory of crust expansion
    South America and Africa (USQRG:74,1,2)
  10. 1410. What flaw does the theory of crust expansion have?
    does not account for folded mountain ranges (USQRG:74,1,2)
  11. 1411. process by which folded mountain ranges formed
    compression (USQRG:74,1,2)
  12. 1412. plate
    huge slabs of Earth’s crust that carry the continents (USQRG:74,2,1)
  13. 1413. decade that plate tectonics caused a revolution in geology
    the 1960s (USQRG:74,1,1; USQRG:74,2,1)
  14. 1414. first coherent, unified explanation for all of Earth’s features
    plate tectonics (USQRG:74,2,1)
  15. 1415. result of two plates converging
    formation of a compressional feature (USQRG:74,2,1)
  16. 1416. result of two plates diverging
    formation of an expansional feature (USQRG:74,2,1)
  17. 1417. first scientist to propose the theory of continental drift
    Alfred Wegener (USQRG:74,2,2)
  18. 1418. year in which continental drift was first proposed
    1910 (USQRG:74,2,2)
  19. 1419. Alfred Wegener’s occupation
    meteorologist (USQRG:74,2,1; USQRG:74,2,2)
  20. 1420. Alfred Wegener’s nationality
    German (USQRG:74,2,1; USQRG:74,2,2)
  21. 1421. continental drift
    theory that continents move slowly over time (USQRG:74,2,2; USQRG:101,1,16)
  22. 1422. Pangaea
    ancient supercontinent comprised of all continental crust present at the time (USQRG:74,2,2; USQRG:102,2,15)
  23. 1423. meaning of Pangaea
    “all lands” (USQRG:74,2,2)
  24. 1424. metaphor Alfred Wegener used to describe the floatation of continental fragments following the breakup of Pangaea
    pieces of ice floating on a pond (USQRG:74,2,2)
  25. 1425. root language of the word Pangaea
    Greek (USQRG:75,fig)
  26. 1426. forerunner theory to plate tectonics
    continental drift (USQRG:75,fig)
  27. 1427. latest geological period in which Pangaea existed
    Permian (USQRG:75,fig)
  28. 1428. two main continents in the Triassic period
    Laurasia and Gondwanaland (USQRG:75,fig)
  29. 1429. geological period of 150 million years ago
    Jurassic (USQRG:75,fig)
  30. 1430. geological period of 200 million years ago
    Triassic (USQRG:75,fig)
  31. 1431. geological period of 65 million years ago
    Cretaceous (USQRG:75,fig)
  32. 1432. geological period of 225 million years ago
    Permian (USQRG:75,fig)
  33. 1433. two modern‐day continents bordered by the Tethys Sea during the Triassic period
    Asia and Africa (USQRG:75,fig)
  34. 1434. geologist subgroup that was most resistant to the theory of continental drift
    geophysicists (USQRG:74,2,3)
  35. 1435. Why did contemporary geologists have trouble accepting Alfred Wegener’s theory of continental drift?
    could not envision how the continents could move around (USQRG:76,1,0)
  36. 1436. two continents with matching Atlantic coastlines
    Africa and South America (USQRG:76,1,1)
  37. 1437. two continents with matching Pacific coastlines
    Australia and Antarctica (USQRG:76,1,1)
  38. 1438. shoreline
    edge of land (USQRG:76,1,2)
  39. 1439. two continents with the most noncliffed Atlantic shorelines
    North America and Africa (USQRG:76,2,0)
  40. 1440. continental shelf
    gently sloping land extending from noncliffed shorelines (USQRG:76,2,0)
  41. 1441. another name for continental shelf
    continental platform (USQRG:76,2,0)
  42. 1442. feature at the end of a continental shelf
    sharp drop‐off (USQRG:76,2,0)
  43. 1443. zone butting up against the continental shelf
    continental slope (USQRG:76,2,0)
  44. 1444. continental slope
    steeply sloped zone between the continental shelf and the ocean depths (USQRG:76,2,0)
  45. 1445. slope of the land on the continental slope
    steep (USQRG:76,2,0)
  46. 1446. slope of the land at the end of the continental slope
    level (USQRG:76,2,0)
  47. 1447. continental rise
    relatively level land at the end of the continental slope (USQRG:76,2,0)
  48. 1448. zone that marks the transition to the ocean floor from the continental slope
    continental rise (USQRG:76,2,0)
  49. 1449. abyssal plain
    relatively flat ocean floor (USQRG:76,2,0)
  50. 1450. most common mineral in continental crust
    granite (USQRG:76,2,0)
  51. 1451. most common mineral in oceanic crust
    basalt (USQRG:76,2,0)
  52. 1452. event that occurs at junctions between continental and oceanic crusts
    sediment covering (USQRG:76,2,0)
  53. 1453. three features determining the configuration of a shoreline
    sea level, presence of cliffs, and topography of the continental shelf (USQRG:76,2,0)
  54. 1454. true edge of a continent
    junction between the continental and oceanic crust (USQRG:76,fig)
  55. 1455. commonly defined edge of a continent
    halfway down the continental slope (USQRG:76,fig)
  56. 1456. borders that should be considered in fitting continents together
    true edges of continents (USQRG:77,1,0)
  57. 1457. How are maps fitting continents together drawn today?
    with computers specifically programmed for this purpose (USQRG:77,1,0)
  58. 1458. average gap or overlap between South America and Africa if fit together in the “best fit” position
    56 miles (USQRG:77,1,0)
  59. 1459. portion of South America with the largest continental slope
    southeastern (USQRG:77,fig)
  60. 1460. bedrock composition of the areas of South America and Africa with the most overlap if fit together in the “best fit” position
    sedimentary or volcanic rocks (USQRG:77,1,0)
  61. 1461. time period in which the areas of South America and Africa with the most overlap in the “best fit” position formed
    after the continents separated (USQRG:77,1,0)
  62. 1462. discovery to be expected if South America and Africa were once connected, according to Murck and Skinner
    similar geologic features on both continents (USQRG:77,1,1)
  63. 1463. most compelling evidence supporting the theory of continental drift, according to Murck and Skinner
    similar geologic features on separate continents (USQRG:77,1,1)
  64. 1464. Why could Alfred Wegener not accurately determine the age of a rock?
    Radiometric dating was just being developed. (USQRG:77,2,1)
  65. 1465. starting point for determining if two separate continents have similar geologic features, according to Murck and Skinner
    checking if ages and orientations of similar rock types match (USQRG:77,2,1)
  66. 1466. location of South American rocks that match African rocks particularly well
    northeast Brazil (USQRG:77,2,1)
  67. 1467. location of African rocks that match South American rocks particularly well
    West Africa (USQRG:77,2,1)
  68. 1468. age of rocks in South America and Africa that have similar properties
    550 million years (USQRG:77,2,1)
  69. 1469. four regions or states that house the Caledonides
    Ireland, Britain, Greenland, and Scandinavia (USQRG:77,2,2)
  70. 1470. mountain range that once connected with the Caledonides
    Appalachians (USQRG:77,2,2)
  71. 1471. two continents with mountain ranges that were once joined to a younger part of the Appalachians
    Africa and Europe (USQRG:77,2,2)
  72. 1472. three regions or states with similar deposits left by recent glaciations
    Canada, Scandinavia, and the northern United States (USQRG:77,2,3)
  73. 1473. epoch in which the most recent glaciations in the northern United States occurred
    Pleistocene (USQRG:77,2,3)
  74. 1474. age in which glacial deposits in Africa and South America with similar properties were formed
    Permian‐Carboniferous (USQRG:77,2,3)
  75. 1475. expected discovery about similar glacial deposits in Africa and South America if the two continents were moved together
    an almost exact match (USQRG:77,2,3)
  76. 1476. effect of the movement of glacial ice on underlying rocks
    cuts grooves and scratches (USQRG:77,2,4)
  77. 1477. effect of the movement of glacial ice on underlying soft sediment
    produces folds and wrinkles (USQRG:77,2,4)
  78. 1478. direction of ice movement in South America and Africa
    outward from the center of the former ice sheet (USQRG:77,2,4)
  79. 1479. climate of South America and Africa in the period that they were conjoined relative to today
    much colder (USQRG:77,2,4)
  80. 1480. position of South America and Africa in relation to the equator in the period that they were conjoined, relative to today
    farther away (USQRG:77,2,4)
  81. 1481. part of Africa next to India during the Carboniferous age
    eastern (USQRG:78,fig)
  82. 1482. four continents that overlapped with Antarctica during the Carboniferous age
    South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia (USQRG:78,fig)
  83. 1483. center of glacial movement in the southern hemisphere during the period in which Pangaea existed
    the then South Pole (USQRG:78,fig)
  84. 1484. conclusion reached if South America and Africa once shared the same climate and geological features
    had the same plants and animals (USQRG:78,1,1)
  85. 1485. evidence Wegener used to verify that South America and Africa had similar forms of life in the past
    the fossil record (USQRG:78,1,1)
  86. 1486. point at which forms of life in South America and Africa began to evolve separately
    the separation of the continents (USQRG:78,2,0)
  87. 1487. Glossopteris
    ancient fern (USQRG:78,2,1)
  88. 1488. five locations the Glossopteris has been found
    southern Africa, South America, Australia, India, and Antarctica (USQRG:78,2,1)
  89. 1489. probability that water and wind carried seeds of Glossopteris to different locations
    unlikely (USQRG:78,2,1)
  90. 1490. relative size of Glossopteris seeds
    large (USQRG:79,1,0)
  91. 1491. relative weight of Glossopteris seeds
    heavy (USQRG:79,1,0)
  92. 1492. type of climate conducive to Glossopteris
    cold (USQRG:79,1,0)
  93. 1493. climate of the southern part of Pangaea
    polar (USQRG:79,1,0)
  94. 1494. Mesosaurus
    extinct small reptile (USQRG:79,1,1)
  95. 1495. geological period in which the Mesosaurus lived
    Permian (USQRG:79,1,1)
  96. 1496. two locations in which Mesosaurus fossils have been found
    southern Brazil and South Africa (USQRG:79,1,1)
  97. 1497. similarity of Mesosaurus fossils found on different continents
    “very similar” (USQRG:79,1,1)
  98. 1498. size of Mesosaurus
    approximately half a meter (USQRG:79,2,0)
  99. 1499. How proficient was the Mesosaurus at swimming?
    able to swim but not across the ocean (USQRG:79,2,0)
  100. 1500. organisms incapable of migration with similar fossils in widely separated areas
    earthworms (USQRG:79,2,0)
  101. 1501. year of Alfred Wegener’s death
    1930 (USQRG:80,1,0)
  102. 1502. decade in which paleomagnetism became prominent
    the 1950s (USQRG:80,1,0)
  103. 1503. paleomagnetism
    study of remnant magnetism or the historical record of the Earth’s magnetic field (USQRG:80,1,0; USQRG:102,2,14)
  104. 1504. polarity
    north‐south directionality (USQRG:80,1,1)
  105. 1505. point at which magma becomes magnetized
    solidification into rock (USQRG:80,1,1)
  106. 1506. direction in which a free‐swinging magnet points
    north (USQRG:80,1,1)
  107. 1507. direction in which a rock’s paleomagnetism points
    the Earth’s magnetic north pole at the time of formation (USQRG:80,1,1)
  108. 1508. magnetic inclination
    angle of a magnet when pointing to the north pole (USQRG:80,2,0)
  109. 1509. relative magnetic inclination at the equator
    flat (USQRG:80,2,0)
  110. 1510. relationship between magnetic inclination and latitude
    the greater the latitude, the steeper the angle (USQRG:80,2,0)
  111. 1511. location at which the magnetic inclination becomes horizontal
    the magnetic pole (USQRG:80,2,0)
  112. 1512. greatest possible angle of inclination
    90° (USQRG:80,2,0)
  113. 1513. measure that can be used to determine distance from a magnetic pole
    magnetic inclination (USQRG:80,2,0)
  114. 1514. paleomagnetic inclination
    magnetic inclination inherent in rocks (USQRG:80,2,0)
  115. 1515. feature that allows geologists to determine the original geographic latitude of rocks
    paleomagnetic inclination (USQRG:80,2,0)
  116. 1516. layer of volcanic rocks that always has the present polarity
    the top layer (USQRG:80,fig)
  117. 1517. decade in which geophysicists discovered the Earth’s magnetic north pole had shifted over time
    the 1950s (USQRG:81,1,1)
  118. 1518. apparent polar wandering
    the shifting of the Earth’s magnetic north pole throughout history (USQRG:81,1,1)
  119. 1519. correlation between two properties of Earth that led to confusion over apparent polar wandering
    similarity between Earth’s magnetic poles and its axis of rotation (USQRG:81,1,1)
  120. 1520. two continents with early, differing evidence of the path of apparent polar wandering
    North America and Europe (USQRG:81,1,1)
  121. 1521. eventual conclusion about apparent polar wandering
    The continents carrying magnetic rocks shifted throughout time. (USQRG:81,1,1)
  122. 1522. feature from which the apparent polar wandering path of a continent is determined
    the paleomagnetism of rocks of different ages (USQRG:81,2,0)
  123. 1523. number of years ago the apparent polar wandering paths of Europe and North America separated
    600 million (USQRG:81,2,1)
  124. 1524. number of years ago the apparent polar wandering paths of Europe and North America reunited
    50 million (USQRG:81,2,1)
  125. 1525. two conditions for the apparent polar wandering paths of Europe and North America to coincide together exactly
    removal of the Atlantic Ocean and reassembly into a single continent (USQRG:81,2,1)
  126. 1526. mechanism that scientists held to in order to explain continental drift, even after the acceptance of paleomagnetism
    one that could split the crust open (USQRG:81,2,2)
  127. 1527. ocean in which scientists first discovered a sea floor of rocks with bands of alternating polarities
    Atlantic (USQRG:81,2,3)
  128. 1528. equipment scientists used to discover a sea floor of rocks with bands of alternating polarities
    magnetometer (USQRG:81,2,3)
  129. 1529. length of bands of alternating polarities in magnetized rocks covering the sea floor
    hundreds of kilometers (USQRG:81,2,3)
  130. 1530. point of symmetry of the bands of alternating polarities in magnetized rocks covering the Atlantic sea floor
    centerline of the Atlantic (USQRG:81,2,3)
  131. 1531. geological feature running down the center of the Atlantic Ocean
    crest of a ridge (USQRG:81,2,3)
  132. 1532. explanation for the polarity of rocks on the Atlantic sea floor
    The sea floor split apart along the ridge, with the rocks moving apart. (USQRG:81,2,3)
  133. 1533. origin of the molten material that rises to the Atlantic sea floor
    the mantle (USQRG:81,2,4)
  134. 1534. How are new volcanic rocks formed on the Atlantic sea floor?
    Molten material wells up the crack in the ocean’s ridge, solidifying into volcanic rocks. (USQRG:81,2,4)
  135. 1535. function of the spreading sea floor in the Atlantic Ocean
    conveyor belt (USQRG:82,1,0)
  136. 1536. seafloor spreading
    the creation of ocean floor at divergent plate boundaries (USQRG:82,1,0; USQRG:103,1,6)
  137. 1537. number of years ago the most recent band of normal polarity in Atlantic sea floor rocks began forming
    700,000 (USQRG:82,fig)
  138. 1538. number of years ago the second most recent band of normal polarity in Atlantic sea floor rocks began forming
    1.35 million (USQRG:82,fig)
  139. 1539. number of years ago the second most recent band of reversed polarity in Atlantic sea floor rocks began forming
    1.65 million (USQRG:82,fig)
  140. 1540. number of years ago the third most recent band of reversed polarity in Atlantic sea floor rocks began forming
    2.5 million (USQRG:82,fig)
  141. 1541. number of fully formed polarized bands in Atlantic sea floor rocks over the past two million years
    4 (USQRG:82,fig)
  142. 1542. group of scientists that provided the final piece of evidence to support continental drift
    geophysicists (USQRG:83,1,0)
  143. 1543. lithosphere
    outermost part of the Earth (USQRG:83,1,2)
  144. 1544. two zones of the Earth included in the lithosphere
    the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle (USQRG:83,1,2)
  145. 1545. thickness of the lithosphere compared to the rock below it
    thin (USQRG:83,1,2)
  146. 1546. warmth of the lithosphere compared to the rock below it
    cool (USQRG:83,1,2)
  147. 1547. strength of the lithosphere compared to the rock below it
    strong (USQRG:83,1,2)
  148. 1548. composition of the part of the mantle not in the lithosphere
    solid rock (USQRG:83,1,2)
  149. 1549. Why is the part of the mantle not in the lithosphere malleable?
    its high temperature (USQRG:83,1,2)
  150. 1550. asthenosphere
    zone in the upper mantle directly underneath the lithosphere (USQRG:83,1,2)
  151. 1551. strength of the asthenosphere
    particularly weak (USQRG:83,1,2)
  152. 1552. approximate temperature of the asthenosphere
    close to the temperature at which rock begins to melt (USQRG:83,1,2)
  153. 1553. plates
    fragments of Earth’s lithosphere (USQRG:83,1,3)
  154. 1554. number of large plates in Earth’s lithosphere
    6 (USQRG:83,1,3)
  155. 1555. reach of the large plates of Earth’s lithosphere
    several thousand kilometers (USQRG:83,1,3)
  156. 1556. isostasy
    equilibrium in which the plates “float” on the asthenosphere (USQRG:83,1,3; USQRG:102,1,10)
  157. 1557. type of movement that occurs in the mantle
    thermal (USQRG:83,1,4)
  158. 1558. tectonics
    study of the movement and deformation of the lithosphere (USQRG:83,1,4)
  159. 1559. root word of tectonics
    tekton (USQRG:83,1,4)
  160. 1560. meaning of tekton
    carpenter or builder (USQRG:83,1,4)
  161. 1561. language of tekton
    Greek (USQRG:83,1,4)
  162. 1562. plate tectonics
    branch of tectonics dealing with processes of lithospheric plate movement and interaction (USQRG:83,1,4)
  163. 1563. location of most lithospheric plate interactions
    along the edges (USQRG:83,2,1)
  164. 1564. most important aspect of lithospheric plate interactions, according to Murck and Skinner
    the nature of plate margins (USQRG:83,2,1)
  165. 1565. three ways in which plates can interact
    diverge, converge, and form a transform fault (USQRG:83,2,1)
  166. 1566. transform fault
    large fracture at which plates slide past each other (USQRG:83,2,1)
  167. 1567. two alternate names for divergent margins
    rifting and spreading centers (USQRG:83,2,2)
  168. 1568. divergent margins
    fractures in the lithosphere where two plates move apart (USQRG:83,2,2)
  169. 1569. type(s) of crust in which divergent margins can occur
    continental and oceanic (USQRG:83,2,2)
  170. 1570. rift valley
    result of a continental crust splitting apart (USQRG:83,2,2)
  171. 1571. Why have rift valleys appeared in East Africa?
    The African plate is being torn and stretched apart. (USQRG:83,2,2)
  172. 1572. modern‐day example of ocean formation in a widening continental rift
    the Red Sea (USQRG:83,2,2)
  173. 1573. two results of an oceanic crust splitting apart
    formation of mid‐oceanic ridge and seafloor spreading (USQRG:83,2,2)
  174. 1574. convergent margins
    areas where two plates move toward each other (USQRG:83,2,3)
  175. 1575. three types of convergent margins
    ocean‐ocean, ocean‐continent, and continent‐continent (USQRG:83,2,3)
  176. 1576. subduction zone
    area in which oceanic crust sinks below another plate into the mantle (USQRG:83,2,3)
  177. 1577. two geological features that mark subduction zones
    deep oceanic trenches and volcano ranges (USQRG:83,2,3)
  178. 1578. type of subduction zone found in Indonesia
    ocean‐ocean (USQRG:83,2,3)
  179. 1579. type of subduction zone found in the Andes
    ocean‐continent (USQRG:83,2,3)
  180. 1580. type of subduction zone found in the Himalayas
    continent‐continent (USQRG:83,2,3)
  181. 1581. collision zone
    area in which mountain ranges are formed after two continents meet along a convergent margin (USQRG:83,2,3)
  182. 1582. transform fault margins
    fractures in the lithosphere where two plates slide past each other (USQRG:83,2,4)
  183. 1583. effect on plates’ edges in transform fault margins
    grinding and abrading (USQRG:83,2,4)
  184. 1584. state in which the San Andreas fault is located
    California (USQRG:83,2,4)
  185. 1585. two plates involved in the San Andreas fault
    Pacific Plate and the North American Plate (USQRG:83,2,4)
  186. 1586. plate movement within the San Andreas fault
    north‐northwest movement of the Pacific Plate (USQRG:83,2,4)
  187. 1587. process that adds new material to the crust
    volcanism along divergent margins (USQRG:83,2,5)
  188. 1588. process that removes material from the crust
    subduction along convergent margins (USQRG:83,2,5)
  189. 1589. relative amounts of new material added to and removed from the crust by the tectonic cycle
    equivalent (USQRG:83,2,5)
  190. 1590. amount of annual movement of most lithospheric plates
    one to ten centimeters per year (USQRG:83,2,5)
  191. 1591. primary location of earthquakes and volcanoes
    along plate margins (USQRG:84,1,1)
  192. 1592. most obvious manifestation of active plate interaction, according to Murck and Skinner
    presence of earthquakes and volcanoes (USQRG:84,1,1)
  193. 1593. event geologists have found most helpful in deducing the shapes of the plates
    earthquakes (USQRG:84,1,1)
  194. 1594. event that causes earthquakes
    huge blocks of rock grinding past each other (USQRG:84,1,2)
  195. 1595. force exerting directional pressure that leads to earthquakes
    tectonic motions (USQRG:84,1,2)
  196. 1596. fault
    fracture in the crust along which movement has occurred (USQRG:84,2,0)
  197. 1597. Why do blocks of rock stick as they slide past one another?
    friction (USQRG:84,2,0)
  198. 1598. focus
    actual location beneath the Earth’s surface where an earthquake begins (USQRG:84,2,0)
  199. 1599. plural of focus
    foci (USQRG:84,2,0)
  200. 1600. geological feature that sometimes marks a transform fault margin
    long, linear valley (USQRG:84,fig)
  201. 1601. epicenter
    map location of an earthquake (USQRG:85,1,0)
  202. 1602. geological location of an epicenter
    directly above the focus (USQRG:85,1,0)
  203. 1603. strength of earthquakes that occur along divergent margins
    fairly weak (USQRG:85,1,1)
  204. 1604. depth of the focus of earthquakes along divergent margins
    shallow (USQRG:85,1,1)
  205. 1605. two rock properties needed for an earthquake to occur
    cold and brittle enough to break (USQRG:85,1,1)
  206. 1606. center of the energy release in an earthquake
    focus (USQRG:85,fig)
  207. 1607. depth of the focus of earthquakes at transform fault margins
    shallow to intermediate (USQRG:85,2,0)
  208. 1608. type of earthquakes in collision zones that can be very powerful
    deep‐focus (USQRG:85,2,0)
  209. 1609. portion of subduction zones that experiences powerful earthquakes
    submerging oceanic plate (USQRG:85,2,1)
  210. 1610. depth of the focus of earthquakes occurring in a collision zone near an oceanic trench
    shallow (USQRG:85,2,1)
  211. 1611. initial location of subduction
    an oceanic trench (USQRG:85,2,1)
  212. 1612. relationship between depth of the focus of an earthquake in a collision zone and distance from the oceanic depth
    the farther the distance, the deeper the focus (USQRG:85,2,1
Card Set
super quiz section 3
super quiz section 3