Respiratory system - 5

  1. Image Upload 2
    ventricular folds
  2. Image Upload 4
    ventricular folds
  3. Image Upload 6
  4. Image Upload 8
    vocal folds
  5. Respiratory System Functions
    • 1) protection from from dehydration, temp change, & other variations
    • 2) defense from pathogens
    • 3) gas exchange between air and circulating blood
    • 4) move air to and from exchange surface
  6. location of vocal folds?
  7. pair of ligaments in larynx that are covered by epithelium and function in sound production?
    vocal folds
  8. type of cell in respiratory membrane?
    simple squamous epithelium
  9. site for gas exchange within lung?
  10. why does air move out of lungs?
    volume of lung decreases with expiration
  11. Boyle's Law?
    gas volume is INVERSELY proportional to pressure
  12. muscles that elevate ribs?
    • 1) sternocleidomastoid
    • 2)scalenes
    • 3) serratus anterior
    • 4) external intercostals
  13. pulmonary ventilation function?
    maintain adequate alveolar ventilation
  14. Henry's Law?
    volume of gas that will dissolve in a solvent is PROPORTIONAL to solubility of gas and gas pressure
  15. Define Pulmonary ventilation
    movement of air in and out of lungs
  16. partial pressure of oxygen in interstitial space of peripheral tissues?
    40 mm HG
  17. which muscles produce contraction to make expiratory movement of lungs?
    internal intercostals
  18. Since Carbon Dioxide is more soluble in water then oxygen what would need to be done to get same amt of oxygen to dissolve in plasma?
    increase partial pressure of oxygen
  19. What happens if you increase alveolar ventilation rate?
    increase partial pressure of oxygen in alveoli
  20. Dalton's Law
    in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of individual partial pressures of all gases in mixture
  21. what binds to hemoglobin when transported in blood?
  22. what happens when diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract?
    volume of thorax increases
  23. alveolar ventilation?
    movement of air in and out of alveoli
  24. partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood ?
    100 mm Hg
  25. muscles that can function in expiration?
    • 1) rectus abdominus
    • 2) internal oblique
    • 3) external oblique
    • 4) internal intercostals
  26. what needs to be done for maximum efficiency in loading oxygen at lungs?
    temperature should be lower then normal body temp
  27. what is result of a drug depressing activity of pneumotaxic center?
    increased tidal volume
  28. internal respiration?
    gas exchange between blood and interstitial fld
  29. where is normal rate and depth of breathing established?
    inspiratory center
  30. partial pressure of carbon dioxide in interstitial space of peripheral tissue?
    45 mm HG
  31. partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood?
    40 mm Hg
  32. what happens if a molecule blocks activity of carbonic anhydrase?
    decrease in blood pH
  33. which is greater? partial pressure of oxygen in alveoli or partial pressure of oxygen in expired air
    partial pressure of oxygen in expired air
  34. what happens to an infants lungs when they take first breath at birth?
    pressure in lungs decrease
  35. which is greater? percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when pH is 7.6 or 7.2?
    when pH is 7.6
  36. does pulmonary ventilation decrease or increase with aging?
  37. which is greater? partial pressure of carbon dioxide in alveoli or expired air
  38. changes when adapting to higher altitude?
    decrease in Po2 in alveoli
  39. define hypercapnia?
    increase in PCO2-
  40. when forcing large volume of air out of glottis and at same time increase tension of vocal cords what is result?
    sound produces high , loud pitch
  41. which is greater? partial pressure of oxygen in atmosphere air (21%) or partial pressure of oxygen in gas cylindar of artificial air (60%)
    pressure of oxygen in cylindar
  42. which is greater? percent of oxygen sat. of hemoglobin when temp is 37 C or 40 C
    37 C
  43. what transports carbon dioxide in blood?
    bicarbonate ions
  44. what effect does hypocapnia have on RR?
    increase in RR
  45. which is greater? pulmonary ventilation when BP rises or falls?
    When BP falls
  46. effect of pleurisy (fld in pleural space) on pulmonary ventilation?
    labored and difficult breathing
  47. function of surfactant secreted by cells in wall of alveoli?
    lower surface tension of alveolar fld preventing collapse of alveoli during expiration
  48. 10% increase of Carbon Dioxide in blood causes what to breathe rate?
    it would increase Breathe rate
  49. which is greater? % of oxygen sat. of hemoglobin when BPG level high or low?
    BPG level is low
  50. Emphysema is break down of alveoli and coalesce into large air space. lungs lose elasticity and compliance is decreased. What effect on lungs?
    • 1) increase dead air space
    • 2) increase vital capacity
    • 3) elevated PCO2 in blood
  51. function of bronchial arteries
    bring oxygenated blood to lungs from heart
  52. what muscle action is involved in quiet expiration?
    no muscle action
  53. effect of age on lung compliance?
  54. function of Hering-Breuer reflex?
    protect lungs from damage d/t overinflation
  55. effects of underwater breathing ?
    breather faster and deeper
  56. Function of conducting portion of respiratory system?
    • 1) filter, moisten and warm air
    • 2) bring air into sites of gas exchange
    • 3) warm and moisten air
  57. chemical regulator of respiration?
    carbon dioxide
  58. respiratory membrane where gas exchange occurs consists of what structures?
    • 1) squamous epithelial cells lining alveoli
    • 2) endothelial cells lining adjacent capillary
    • 3) fused basal laminae that lie between alveolar and endothelial cells
  59. what center can cause prolonged inspirations?
    apneustic center
  60. at start of respiratory cycle what is relationship between intrapulmonary pressure and atmospheric pressure?
    they are the same
  61. why are inspired particles inhaled through nose stopped before reaching lungs?
    pseudostratified ciliated epithelium
  62. does pleural cavity contain lubricating fld that decreases surface tension?
  63. does pleural cavity have positive or negative pressure?
    slightly negative
  64. where does pleural cavity hold lungs?
    against chest wall
  65. what types of cells compose alveoli?
    • 1) type 1 alveolar cells
    • 2) type 2 cuboidal cells
  66. function of type 2 cuboidal cells?
    secrete surfactant
  67. location of respiratory control center?
  68. define pneumothorax?
    result from injury to chest wall causing air to leak into pleural cavity
  69. what causes oxygen and carbon dioxide to exchange in lungs and through cell membranes?
  70. define tidal volume?
    amt of air moved in and out of lungs druing a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
  71. muscles contracted if you blow up a balloon?
    • internal inercostals
    • abdominal muscles
  72. physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation?
    alveolar surface tension increases, muscle action is required
  73. function of pneumotaxic center of pons?
    modify rate and depth of breathing
  74. define respiration?
    1)exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between atmosphere air and cells of organism

    2) utilization of oxygen in mitochondria of cells for production of energy
  75. effect of tension on vocal cords?
  76. parts of respiratory zone?
    • 1) respiratory bronchioles
    • 2) alveolar ducts
    • 3) alveolar sacs
  77. Decompression sickness results in sickness when exposed to a sudden drop in atmoshpheric pressure. which gas causes problem
  78. function of conducting portion of respiratory system?
    • 1) trap particulate matter adn gas impurities so they can be phagocized, swallowed adn expectorated
    • 2) bring air itno sites of gas exchange
    • 3) warm and moisten air
    • 4) air flow regulation
  79. type and location of Type 1 alveolar cells?
    simple squamous cells located where gas exchange occurs
  80. pressure in intrapleural space compared to atmospheric pressure?
    intrapleural space is less then atmoshperic pressure
  81. what is asthma?
    acute condition results from sensitive irritated conducting airways
  82. define Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)?
    amt of air breathed in above normal tidal volume
  83. what is tidal volume?
    exchanged air during normal breathing
  84. define vital capacity?
    total volume of exchangeable air
  85. what happens with oxygen when temp increases?
    release of oxygen from hemoglobin increases
  86. In Boyle's Law what happens to gas pressure if volume of gas increases?
    pressure of gas decreases
  87. the apneustic center of pons provides what to inspiratory center?
    continuous stimulation to inspiratory center
  88. what respiratory condition effects efficiency of gas diffusion?
  89. what structures provide chemoreceptor input to respiratory center of medulla oblongata?
    • 1) medullary chemoreceptor
    • 2) aortic body
    • 3) carotid body
  90. what is function of chloride shift?
    maintain plasma pH
  91. function of DRG?
    inhibit diaphragm
  92. decreased blood flow results in lack of oxygen which leads to what condition?
    ischemic hypoxia
  93. the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is more or less then in tissue spaces?
    Partial pressure of Carbon dioxid is less in venous blood
  94. rate of gas diffusion across respiratory membrane increases when what happens?
    partial pressure difference of gas across respiratory membrane increases
  95. what is the effect of sympathetic stimulation to smooth muscle tissue in bronchioles?
  96. what is the respiratory rate X tidal volume (corrected for dead air) ?
    alveolar ventilation rate
  97. in quiet breathing what happens during inspiration and expiration?
    • inspiration - muscular contraction
    • expiration - passive
  98. If there is an increase in amt of oxygen discharged from hemoglobin to peripheral tissues what is happening to pH?
    decrease in pH
  99. what happens to gass pressure in and out of lungs when air moves into lungs?
    gas pressure in lungs is less then outside pressure
  100. when does chloride shift occur?
    bicarbonate ions leave RBC
  101. what decreases hemoglobin saturation?
    decrease in pH
  102. if septal cells in lungs are damaged?
    alveolar collapse
  103. what is involved in external respiration?
    diffusion of gases between alveoli and circulating blood
  104. what happens to expiratory reserve volume (ERV) during an asthma attack?
    ERV decreases
  105. if you take a deep breath and blow it all out until nothing more is exhaled this amount is called ?
    vital capacity (VC)
  106. lack of oxygen d/t decreased oxygen levels?
    hypoxic hypoxia
  107. muscles that can elevate ribs?
    • 1) sternocleidomastoid
    • 2) scalenes
    • 3) pectoralis minor
    • 4) external intercostals
  108. what increases hemoglobin saturation?
    increase pH
  109. which statements are true of ventral respiratory group ?
    1) found in medulla
    2) innervates pectoralis minor
    3) active during maximal exhalation
    4) inhibit diaphragm
    5) inhibit expiratory neurons during maximal inhalation
    • 1) found in medulla
    • 2) innervates pectoralis minor
    • 3) active during maximal exhalation
    • 4) inhibit diaphragm
    • 5) inhibit expiratory neurons during maximal inhalation
  110. what happens to volume of thorax when diaphragm and external intercostals relax?
    thorax volume decreases
  111. cause of hypocapnia?
    abnormal high RR
  112. what does high BPG levels do to hemoglobin saturation?
    decrease hemoglobin saturation
  113. what does hyperventilation do to blood pH?
    increase blood pH
  114. the secondary bronchi lead to what structures?
    lobes of lungs
  115. primary bronchi lead to what structures?
  116. what structures flap over during swallowing of food (2)?
    The epiglottis flaps over the glottis
  117. layers making up the walls of the respiratory tubes starting with lumen and work outward?
    • 1- Mucosa
    • 2- submucosa
    • 3- muscularis
    • 4- adventitia or serosa
  118. function of trachealis muscle?
    • 1) allow expansion when swallow
    • 2) control diameter of lumen for cough
  119. how does histology change as you move down bronchioles deeper into lung?
    1- simple columnar epithelium to simple cuboidal epithelium to simple squamous epithelium

    • 2- less cilia
    • 3- less goblet cells
    • 4- less cartilage
    • 5- more smooth muscle
  120. how many secondary bronchi on left side?
    how many secondary bronchi on right side?
    • 2 on left
    • 3 on right
  121. which bronchus is larger in diameter?
    Right primary bronchus
  122. epithelium lining trachea?
    pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  123. what lines the region of superior nasal conchae?
    olfactory epithelium
  124. kind of epithelium lining oropharynx?
    stratified squamous epithelium
  125. what is the hole in middle of respiratory tubes called?
  126. epithelium lining ventricular folds?
    stratified squamous epithelium
  127. epithelium lining paranasal cavities?
    pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  128. which bronchus is more horizontal?
    Left primary bronchus
  129. epithelium lining vocal folds?
    simple columnar epithelium
  130. more common site for lodging of a foreign object that has entered respiratory passageway?
  131. epithelium lining nasopharynx?
    pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  132. epithelium lining laryngopharynx?
    stratified squamous epithelium
  133. bones making up roof of nasal cavity?
    bones making up floor of nasal cavity?
    • roof- ethmoid and sphenoid bones
    • floor- maxillary and palatine bones
  134. epithelium lining nasal cavity?
    pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  135. what are the specific cartilages
    1) forms the adams apple?
    2) "lid" for larynx
    3) shaped like a signet ring
    4) vocal cord attachment
    • 1) forming adams apple- thyroid
    • 2) lid to larynx- epiglottis
    • 3)shape like signet ring- cricoid
    • 4) vocal cord attachment- arytenoid
  136. The two pairs of folds are found in larynx. which pair is "TRUE" vocal cords? (superior or inferior)
  137. What structure makes up floor of nasal cavity?
    hard palate
  138. structure dividing nasal cavity into Right and Left sides?
    nasal septum
  139. list tubes (in order) coming off trachea?
    • 1) primary bronchi
    • 2) secondary bronchi
    • 3) tertiary bronchi
    • 4) bronchioles
    • 5) terminal bronchioles
    • 6) respiratory bronchioles
    • 7) alveolar duct
    • 8) alveolar sac
    • 9) capillary
  140. Image Upload 10
    dust cell
  141. Image Upload 12
    septal cell (type 2 alveolar cell)
  142. Image Upload 14
    respiratory bronchiole of normal lung
  143. Image Upload 16
  144. Image Upload 18
  145. Image Upload 20
    alveolar duct of normal lung
  146. Image Upload 22
    alveolar duct
  147. Image Upload 24
    alveolar duct
  148. Image Upload 26
    alveolar sac
  149. Image Upload 28
    alveolar sac
  150. Image Upload 30
    alveolar sac
  151. Image Upload 32
  152. Image Upload 34
  153. Image Upload 36
  154. Image Upload 38
  155. Image Upload 40
    basement membrane
  156. Image Upload 42
  157. Image Upload 44
  158. Image Upload 46
    blood vessel
  159. Image Upload 48
  160. Image Upload 50
  161. Image Upload 52
  162. Image Upload 54
    capillary with RBC
  163. Image Upload 56
  164. Image Upload 58
    dust cell
  165. Image Upload 60
  166. Image Upload 62
  167. Image Upload 64
  168. Image Upload 66
    goblet cell
  169. Image Upload 68
    hyaline cartilage
  170. Image Upload 70
    lamina propria
  171. Image Upload 72
  172. Image Upload 74
    respiratory membrane
Card Set
Respiratory system - 5
Respiratory system anatomy and function.